Early thermal models suggested that Mars accreted cold and took up to 2Ga to complete differentiation and core formation (Johnston et al., 1974; Toksoz and Hsui, 1978). Improved understanding of the dynamics of accretionary processes have led to the realization that Mars formed hot due to rapid accretion (within ~5Ma [Wetherill and Inaba, 2000]), with differentiation and core formation completed within ~20Ma after Solar System formation (Lee and Halliday, 1997). Accretional heating, core formation, and decay of radioactive elements produced sufficient energy to melt Mars, leading to a magma ocean (Elkins-Tanton et al., 2005). The combination of geochemical information about the bulk composition of Mars, geophysical modeling, and geological constraints from surface features produces thermal evolutionary models of the martian interior.
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