Sweating Ebooks Catalog
L. exsudo, discharge by sweating Any flow from the body or organ through pores or openings by natural discharge. exudatoria n. L. exsudo, discharge by sweating (ARTHRO Insecta) Finger-like appendages of certain larvae of ants and termites that produce secretions attractive to the workers. exude v. L. exsudo, discharge by sweating To ooze moisture or other liquids through minute openings.
Humans, however, have evolved a number of specialized modifications for effectively dissipating copious quantities of heat while running in hot, arid conditions. For one, humans do not have to couple respiration with stride (Bramble and Carrier, 1983). In addition, humans are considerably derived in terms of the number of eccrine sweat glands and the loss of almost all fur. Sweating is an effective means of cooling (evapotranspiration of 1 ml H2O requires 580 cal of heat Schmidt-Nielson, 1990 ), but is ineffectual with fur, which traps air and moisture at the skin's surface, thereby considerably reducing convection (McArthur and Monteith, 1980). Therefore, other tropical cursorial mammals such as hyenas and hunting dogs that can run long distances are constrained to do so at night or during the dawn and dusk when the days are hot. Humans alone are capable of ER during midday heat. Human sweating, however, imposes high water demands, requiring as much as 1-2 l h in well-conditioned...
On the Moon, as they worked on the plain at Hadley, their heart rhythms were radioed back to the doctor on the Surgeon console at mission control. Towards the end of their lunar stay, he noticed that their hearts occasionally gave an abnormal beat. This was somewhat alarming but, since the mission objectives had been met, an emergency return would not have been any faster than letting the crew complete the mission as planned. After their return, further investigation showed that their bodies were lacking in potassium. It had been leached out of their systems by their profuse sweating and imbibing prior to the flight and this had upset their electrolyte balance. Future flights would compensate by having their crews take fruit drinks laced with potassium.
Cost, because mechanisms like sweating, panting, and so forth cost energy to run. Consequently, Mh begins to rise again, requiring large increases in evaporation rate so that the net heat flux meets the demands imposed by Fourier's law. The limits on tolerable environmental temperature are set at low temperatures by the maximum metabolic rate, and at high temperatures by the maximum rate of evaporation.
When the glaciers retreated 15,000 years ago, the mongoloids would have expanded northward, like their counterparts did in Europe. When the glaciers started to retreat some 15,000 years ago, the mongoloids, still a small population, would have started to expand and recolonize northern territories, just as their counterparts are known to have done in Europe. The first modern humans who migrated out of Africa almost certainly had dark skin, as do their descendants in Australia and the relict populations who still survive at points in between. Given that early modern human skulls are all much the same, it's possible that for many thousands of years all modern humans outside Africa, as well as those inside, had black skin. But at some
The various rescue plans for the CSM meant nothing if the LM could not get off the Moon and reach some kind of orbit. Should the ascent engine have underperformed for some reason and come up short on velocity, the surface crew would be doomed within an hour of lift-off. If it failed to ignite, they were doomed to expire on the surface. This was Michael Collins's private fear as Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin prepared to make their ascent in the top half of Eagle. When the instant of lift-off does arrive, I am like a nervous bride. I have been flying for 17 years, by myself and with others I have skimmed the Greenland ice cap in December and the Mexican border in August I have circled the Earth 44 times on board Gemini 10. But I have never sweated out any flight like I am sweating out the LM now. My secret terror for the last 6 months has been leaving them on the Moon and returning to Earth alone now I am within minutes of finding out the truth of the matter. If they fail to rise from...
With the appearance of H. erectus in the early Pleistocene the increase in hominin body size is accompanied by linearity (i.e., lankiness) in body build to maintain the SA V ratio appropriate for the hot, arid climate (Figure 5.2). The longer arms and legs and slender torso relative to body size allow greater cooling potential through sweating. The Nariokotome H. erectus boy was linear like present-day Nilotic populations, and maybe even more so.
Dusk descends on a sweltering New Orleans. A naked man lays in a fetal position, sweating and moaning in an apartment a few blocks from Canal Street. His jaundiced body is mottled with bruises where vessels have hemorrhaged. The pillow and bedside are caked with what looks like coffee grounds but are drying gobs of blackened, coagulated blood that he has vomited. The man's breathing is raspy and labored as he slowly drowns in his own fluids.
Not only are human functionally naked but we are sweaty too. We have more sweat glands than any other primate and are some of the sweatiest mammals as well. It follows that the probable reason for our loss of body hair was due to the need for increased sweating. There is no fossil evidence for the evolution of human body hair so genetics and adaptations of other human traits guide the hypotheses. glands for copious sweating (and hence body cooling) and the evolution of darker skin for protection from harmful ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The combination of body fur loss, increased heat tolerance through sweating, and darker skin enabled hominins to travel further and spend longer periods of time under the hot sun. The MCIR gene associated with skin pigmentation points to a date of 1.7 Mya for the emergence of dark skin, which is consistent with the hypothesis that body fur loss and dark pigmentation evolved in concert around 2 Mya.
It is important to distinguish among several distinct uses of the word 'adaptation' in the biological sciences. A physiological adaptation is an organismal response to a particular stress if you heat up from the sun you may respond by moving into the shade (a behavioral adaptation), or you may respond by sweating (a physiological adaptation). In an evolutionary context, adaptation is also a change in response to a certain problem, but the change is genetic. Evolutionary adaptations that
W hile my colleagues and I were digging up the first Tiktaalik in the Arctic in July 2004, Randy Dahn, a researcher in my laboratory, was sweating it out on the South Side of Chicago doing genetic experiments on the embryos of sharks and skates, cousins of stingrays. You've probably seen small black egg cases, known as mermaid's purses, on the beach. Inside the purse once lay an egg with yolk, which developed into an embryonic skate or ray. Over the years, Randy has spent hundreds of hours experimenting with the embryos inside these egg cases, often working well past midnight. During the fateful summer of 2004, Randy was taking these cases and injecting a molecular version of vitamin A into the eggs. After that he would let the eggs develop for several months until they hatched.
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