How To Get Rid Of Termites

Oplan Termites

Oplan Termites

You Might Start Missing Your Termites After Kickin'em Out. After All, They Have Been Your Roommates For Quite A While. Enraged With How The Termites Have Eaten Up Your Antique Furniture? Can't Wait To Have Them Exterminated Completely From The Face Of The Earth? Fret Not. We Will Tell You How To Get Rid Of Them From Your House At Least. If Not From The Face The Earth.

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Termite Extermination Information

Termites create great damage to your home, which is why you should identify and eliminate them as quickly as they appear. This eBook Oplan Termites teaches you how to solve your termite problem once and for all. Learn how to identify termites, find out if your house is really infested, and eradicate them. Discover Some Of The Most Effective And Time-Proven Methods To Get Rid Of Termites! Learn Some Mean Ways To Really Get Rid Of These Pests From Every Nook And Corner Of Your Home.

Termite Extermination Information Summary

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Pseudoscience Old Wives Tales and Frauds Magnetic Termites

Although bees respond to fields, magnetic sensing has been falsely ascribed to other insects. One of these is a special breed of magnetic termites that exists in tropical northern Australia and is restricted to small areas just south of Darwin, at Arnhem Land, and at the Cape York peninsula. These termites are named for their construction of clusters of 100 or more tombstone-like mounds up to 6 ft (2 meters) tall, oriented with their long axis aligned approximately 10 east of a geographic northward direction (Figure 2.31). Because a magnetic compass declination of those regions is a few degrees east of north, it has long been thought that those special termites were satisfying some special magnetic orientation sense. Only in recent years have Australian CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization) scientists found that magnetism plays no role in the magnetic termite FIGURE 2.31 Magnetic termite mounds in Australia align approximately 10 east of geographic north...

Other eusocial organisms

Not all eusocial organisms have the same reproductive system that Hymenoptera species do. Termites, for example, live in colonies with a reproductive pair (one female and one male) and sterile female workers, but the workers aren't more closely related to their siblings than they are to their own offspring (were they to have any). For them and other such creatures, kin selection isn't what compels them to remain in the colony.

Another fly from the Phoridae family

There is an additional reason for winglessness in this riff-raff of lurkers and squatters in ants' and termites' nests. Many of them (not the Phorid flies) have over evolutionary time assumed a protective resemblance to ants, either (or both) to fool the ants or to fool would-be predators who might otherwise pick them out from among the less palatable and better-protected ants. Who, on taking only a casual glance, would notice that the insect below, which lives in ants' nests, is not an ant at all but a beetle Once again, how do we know From deep and detailed resemblances to beetles, which hugely outnumber the superficial features in which the insect resembles an ant exactly the same way as we know that a dolphin is a mammal and not a fish. This creature has its beetle ancestry written all through it, except (again as with dolphins) in those features that define its superficial appearance, such as its winglessness and its ant-like profile.

Social hormones see pheromones

The ants, termites and some bees and wasps in which individuals of the same species cooperate in caring for the young, a reproductive division of labor is present, and an overlap of at least two generations in life stages contributing to the colony eusocial insects. 2. A social insect that belongs to either a presocial or eusocial species.

Not just social but eusocial

Also any groups within which there is an organized 'division of labour'. The meaning of the word then evolved as different schools of entomologists adapted it to their own definition. In this book, we use the adjective 'eusocial' of groups in which individuals, though they have reached the age of reproduction, do not in fact reproduce. Instead of flying off to found their own colony, daughters of the second generation remain in the nest to raise their siblings. This behaviour, though also found in some species of wasps and bees, is universal throughout the world of ants and termites. Sociality was not suddenly magicked into existence. It must have developed dozens of times during evolution and affected different groups. Looking no farther than the Hymenoptera, we can say with certainty that it has emerged at least ten times. Nor is it restricted to Hymenoptera and termites, though for a long time this was believed to be the case. It has recently been discovered in other invertebrates,...

ADPP see adenosine triphosphate

Adultoid reproductive (ARTHRO Insecta) In higher termites, a replacement reproductive following the disappearance of the primary reproductive, that is an imaginal already present, or a nymph reared to an imago stage and morphologically indistinguishable from the primary. see primary reproductive, nymphoid reproductive, ergatoid reproductive.

Sutural sinus see jugal sinus

A.S. swearm, swarm (ARTHRO Insecta) In social insects a. The departure of a queen and workers from the parental nest to establish a new colony of highly euso-cial bees. b. In ants and termites, often applied to the mass departure of reproductive forms from the nests at the beginning of the nuptial flight.

Archeology as a paleoanthropological subject

More productive are correlations between basic physical capabilities, including the cumulative markers of effort, stress, and nutrition that can be deduced from skeletons, and artifacts, which yield detailed information about actual behavioral episodes. This explanatory power of artifacts may be demonstrated with regard to the issue of subsistence, as the prominent behavioral aspect that can be derived from Paleolithic archeological remains. For years, the question has been discussed of whether some of the human ancestral groups were hunting or actually scavenging (Blumenschine et al. 1994). While traces from carcass-processing give evidence of the range of the prey according to species and age distribution, as well as show the use of the different body parts, finds like the spears from Schoningen (Thieme 1997) indicate sophisticated hunting activities among H. heidelbergensis. Similarly, clues to the composition of the diet can be gathered not only from the zoological and rare...

Increasing the problemsolutiondistance

A sixth approach to human cognitive evolution on the basis of tool behavior focuses on a particular attribute of artifacts the dissociation of problems and solutions. In his famous experiments, especially with chimpanzees, in the early twentieth century, Kohler (1963) recognized tool behavior as an extension of the process of round about thinking. If tool use is considered to solve a problem, then the immediate desire, to get a fruit for example, has to be set aside for one or several intermediate objectives such as finding or producing an appropriate tool. Thus, at least in the short term, thinking and resulting physical actions must depart from the immediate problem. Separated from each other, the different elements of mental or physical operations may not seem to be useful if one is unable to conceptualize a tool for termite-fishing, it does not make sense to look for a thin and flexible twig in the bushes 5 m away from the termite mound. However only in the combination of these...

Box The Phylogeny Of Placental Mammals

Palaeomastodon Tusk

The first division of the Afrotheria is an unnamed clade consisting of the aardvark, the tenrecs, the golden mole and the elephant shrews. The aardvark is the sole living representative of the Tubulidentata. It is a bulky animal with a tubular snout and reduced teeth that lives in burrows and digs for termites. Fossil aardvarks date back to the Miocene (Figure 10.22(a)).

Stomach Contents Halfway Through

Modern methanogenic bacteria, such as Methanobacterium thermautotrophicum, have a cumulative effect of producing methane on a globally measurable scale, if present in enough herbivores that digest large amounts of plant material. Of the current global methane budget, about 80 is related to methane produced by bacteria, of which many are hosted by the guts of domesticated cattle. Termites also are significant contributors to the global methane budget (in fact, more so than cattle) and they also host bacterial colonies that assist their digestion of wood. During the Mesozoic, large herbivorous dinosaurs, along with termites and other wood-digesting organisms, were probably the purveyors of voluminous gaseous emissions that would have saturated the atmosphere of that time.

Pirozynski Fossil 2016

Araucarioxylon

The most diagnostic feature of the basidiomycetes is the basidium (pl. basidia), a generally club-shaped cell where nuclear fusion (karyogamy) takes place and the structure upon which the sexual spores (basid-iospores) are produced. Some basidia are borne on complex, multicellular fruiting bodies, for example the mushrooms (FIG. 3.66). Other basidiomycete features include hyphal outgrowths termed clamp connections, and the presence of a dikaryon phase in the life cycle, a condition in which each cell in the thallus contains two nuclei. Some basidiomycetes are involved in ectomycorrhizal associations, whereas others are symbiotically associated with various insects, for example with leaf-cutter ants and termites. One example of a fungus-termite interaction is the Miocene-Pliocene termite trace fossil Microfavichnus, this ichnogenus is thought to represent fungus combs of fungus-growing termites (Duringer et al., 2007). The combs consist of alveolar masses...

Fungianimal Interactions

Nematode Trapping Fungi

In some cases, the morphological similarity between a fossil and extant fungus can be used to infer the nutritional mode and degree of interaction. Geotrichites glaesarius represents a conidial fungus, that is, a fungus that forms external, asexual spores of a particular type (Stubblefield et al., 1985b). It was found on the surface of a partially decomposed abdomen of a spider (FIG. 3.97 ) preserved in late Oligocene-early Miocene amber from the Dominican Republic (Stubblefield et al., 1985b). The fact that the fungus had not invaded the body cavity of the spider and the pattern of conidial formation suggest that this interaction was saprotrophic. Two other reports of entomophthoralean (Zygomycota) fungi from the Dominican amber include a parasitic infection of a winged termite and a fungus, found on a fossil ant, which resembles modern members of an insect pathogen (Poinar and Thomas,

Look Through the Microscope of Evolution

Mixotricha Paradoxa Diagram

Some hypotheses of intermicrobial symbiosis go beyond metabolic mutualisms. The evolution of motility and cytoskeleton elements has been suggested to originate from a hypothetical spirochetal symbiont forming a consortium with an archea 10 . It should be noted that living fossils for such a scenario exist in the form of Chlorochromatium aggregatum and Mixotricha paradoxa. C. aggregatum evolved from a consortium comprising green sulfur bacterial epibionts surrounding a central motile b-proteobacterium. M. paradoxa is a flagellate in the gut of the termite Mastotermes darwiniensis and is coated with Bacteroides species and spirochetes for motility 23, 24 .

Diet And Feeding Ecology

Ring-tailed lemurs can handle both ripe and unripe fruit, young and mature leaves, leaf stems, flowers, and unripe seeds, and they regularly ingest dead wood, termite soil, and earth (Rasamimanana and Rafidinarivo , 1993 Sauther, 1992, 1998 Simmen et al., 2003, 2006b Sussman, 1972). As in other primate species, geophagy in ring-tailed lemurs is likely a strategy to handle and neutralize toxic secondary compounds such as tannins (Krishnamani and Mahaney, 2000 Simmen et al., 2006a,b). L. catta do take some animal prey, consuming larvae, locusts, cicadas, spiders, spiderwebs (Sauther, 1992), and occasionally even birds and chameleons (Oda, 1996 Sauther, 1992).

Parasitic fly from the Phoridae family

Probably for similar reasons, ants' nests, and termites' nests, are home to a horde of wingless hangers-on of many different types, feeding on the rich pickings swept in by the ever-rustling streams of returning foragers. And wings are just as much of a hindrance to them as they are to the ants themselves. Who would ever believe that the monstrosity on the right is a fly Yet we know from a careful and detailed study of its anatomy that not only is it a fly, this parasite of termite nests belongs to a particular family of flies, the Phoridae. On the next page is a more normal member of the same family, which presumably somewhat resembles the winged ancestors of the weirdly wingless creature above, although it too is a parasite of social insects - bees in this case. You can see the similarity to the sickle-shaped head of the weird monster on the previous page. And the monster's stunted wings are just visible as the tiny triangles on either side.

Alluvial And Fluvial Environment

Deltaic Environment

Beginning in the 1990s, finds of numerous trace fossils attributed to insects (termites, ants, bees), crayfish, horseshoe crabs, and mollusks (clams, snails), as well as vertebrate tracks and nests (some made by phytosaurs Chapter 6), have added an ichnofacies component. As a result, the previously incomplete picture of paleo-environments in the Chinle has been expanded to include fluvial and lacustrine environments in association with forest ecosystems. The ichnofacies thus helped to enrich our understanding of the life history of the theropods and other vertebrates that lived in those same environments.

Scavenging And Hunting

Humans share a common herbivorous, or plant-eating, ancestor with living apes and early hominins were mostly vegetarians who ate fruit, nuts, tubers (roots), and also ate insects like termites. Like other herbivorous mammals, including monkeys and apes, humans cannot synthesize vitamin C an unnecessary skill with a diet comprised of vitamin C-rich vegetable matter. But the drastic shift in hominin brain and body size around 2 Mya is linked to a shift in diet toward carnivory. Scavenging and hunting during the hot daytime hours on the East African savannah is a significant component of the evolution of the suite of characters that differentiated early Homo from australopiths and Paranthropus and eventually led to humans. Although meat-eating holds an important place in our evolutionary history, it did not emerge uniquely in our lineage. Mostly fruit-eating chimpanzees at Gombe, Tanzania, are known for their habit of killing and eating red colobus monkeys to the point of significantly...

Convergent complexities

Fungus Fruiting Chamber

The behaviour of complex social insect societies, and specifically the army ants, is more than a digression. This is because the emergence of such biological complexity may be much more constrained than is sometimes imagined.51 At the least it is a reminder that carnivorous species can be more successful, at least in terms of colony size, than the farming ants (and, as we shall see below, termites). Success, as even the most jaded (if not jealous) scientist well knows, is relative. Size, we are reassured from the most reliable sources, is not all. In their relative adaptive contexts social wasps and bees have taken over their respective worlds. So, too, the attine ants have evolved a remarkable system of fungal cultivation. In each of these examples we have evidence of extensive appropriation of resources, capable of maintaining large and complex societies. Life beyond these 'cities' and 'armies' remains, of course, diverse and marvellous the biological world is by no means reduced to...

The Abstraction Of Beasts

Where such communication is essential for survival, there is already some evidence that apes transmit extragenetic or cultural information. Jane Goodall observed baby chimps in the wild emulating the behavior of their mothers and learning the reasonably complex task of finding an appropriate twig and using it to prod into a termite's nest so as to acquire some of these tasty delicacies.

Paranthropus Robust Australopiths

P. robustus fossils come from the South African sites of Sterkfontein, Swartkrans, and Drimolen and have skulls and teeth that are like less exaggerated versions of P. boisei. They spanned from about 2.0-1.5 Mya. P. robustus is affiliated with a record of bone tools at the Swartkrans cave site. In the first half of the 20th century, Raymond Dart interpreted these tools as weapons that were part of an osteodontokeratic (bone-tooth-horn) culture used by killer ape-men. However, since Dart's time, much more observations of chimpanzee behavior have been made and new microimaging techniques for artifacts and bones have become available. With modern knowledge it is clear that the bone tools from Swartkrans were used for digging tubers out of the ground and some were also used as wands for fishing termites out of their mounds, similar to the way chimpanzees obtain the insects with twigs.

Leptiform see campodeiform larva

Gr. lestes, robber biosis, manner of life (ARTHRO Insecta) In Hymenoptera, a type of symbiosis in which a group of 'thief ants' of small size nest in or near the chambers of termites and larger ants, eating their stored food, larvae, and pupae unnoticed by their benefactors. see cleptobiosis.

Io Evolution bound the ubiquity of convergence

Before moving to some examples specifically in the areas of behaviour and molecular biology, where convergence a priori would be surprising, let me try to show you how ubiquitous is the phenomenon of convergence. Science fiction is replete with examples of the 'insectoid', vaguely modelled on the apparently robotic scrabblings of a terrestrial counterpart. Evolutionary orthodoxy, of course, is that such a creature is a contingent accident, assembled by chance histories and circumstances. Insects are interesting insects are monophyletic but in the final analysis that is all there is to say. If, however, we consider 'insectoids' as a biological property then perhaps something more general emerges. So what is the design specification Among the defining features of the insects are the following an articulated exoskeleton arising from the process of arthropodization compound eyes a hexa-pod gait whereby three of the six walking legs are always on the ground and thereby define a triangle...

Colletocystophore see rhopalium

Colony fission (ARTHRO Insecta) In social Hymenoptera, the establishement of new colonies by the departure of one or more reproductive forms plus groups of workers from the parental nest, in which comparable units remain to perpetuate the parental colony sometimes called hesmosis in ants sociotomy in termites. see swarming.

Prologue A Vein Is a River

The boy in the bed in front of me was named Justin, and he didn't want to wake up. His bed, a spongy mat on a metal frame, sat in a hospital ward, a small concrete building with empty window frames. The hospital was made up of a few of these buildings, some with thatched roofs, in a wide dusty courtyard. It felt more like a village than a hospital to me. I associate hospitals with cold linoleum, not with goat kids in the courtyard, punching udders and whisking their tails, not with mothers and sisters of patients tending iron pots propped up on little fires under mango trees. The hospital was on the edge of a desolate town called Tambura, and the town was in southern Sudan, near the border with the Central African Republic. If you were to travel out in any direction from the hospital, you would head through little farms of millet and cassava, along winding paths through broken forests and swamps, past concrete-and-brick funeral domes topped with crosses, past termite mounds shaped...

Definitions of Track Terms

Although most fossil tracks were formed and preserved in originally soft sediment, solid materials compressed or fractured by the weight of a moving animal also constitute tracks. Crushed eggshells in a nest on the ground, twigs broken underfoot in a forest, or trampled bones in a watering hole are all tracks. This is because they leave visible impressions made by appendages of animals. Likewise, claw marks left in solid substrates are tracks, too. When a domestic cat (Felis domestica) scratches furniture to get attention, a modern aardvark (Orycteropus afer) tears apart a termite nest in search of a meal, and a grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) rakes a tree with its claws to mark its territory, these animals are also leaving tracks.

Preface The Cambridge sandwich

The central theme of this book depends on the realities of evolutionary convergence the recurrent tendency of biological organization to arrive at the same 'solution' to a particular 'need'. Perhaps the best-known example is the similarity between the camera-like eye of the octopus and the human eye (or that of any other vertebrate). As we shall see in this particular instance, where the camera-like eye has evolved independently at least six times, Maynard Smith's premise that 'only a limited number of ways in which eyes can possibly work' is amply confirmed. If this book happens to serve no other purpose than act as a compilation of evolutionary convergences, be it head-banging in mole rats and termites or matriarchal social structure in sperm whales and elephants, then that will be sufficient. But, of course, the net is in pursuit of a much bigger prey. Its main, but not ultimate, aim is to argue that, contrary to received wisdom, the emergence of human intelligence is a...

Mnage a trois

So fungus-growing ants have developed monoculture, a unique achievement in the animal kingdom if we leave aside human activity and some termites which also grow fungi in their nests. Monocultures do, however, have a drawback they are particularly prone to parasites. But Atta ants have the answer to this problem they use antibiotics.

Stinging

Other, they wield their antennae or their legs, jousting for just the few seconds that it takes for one of them to give up, whereupon they both set off looking for another member of the opposing side. These honeypot ants can also behave like highwaymen, stealing the food gathered by others rather than trying to add to their own food-producing territory. Their victims are ants of the Pogonomyrmex genus, harvesters who may pick up termites along with seeds. If the honeypot ants come across them, they examine their booty and, if they find an insect among it, make off with it.

A long long story

Insects were among the very first creatures to colonize the land, 400 million years ago, according to paleontologists, that is, during the Primary Era. Two hundred million years later, probably during the Jurassic period or at the beginning of the Cretaceous, termites made their appearance. A further hundred million years had to elapse before the first social bees, the wasps, and ants turned up.

Cities

Very few animals transform their habitat as extensively as Homo sapiens does, and of all our transformations, perhaps none are so visible as the formation of cities. While many of humanity's changes, such as deforestation and the planting and maintenance of agricultural fields perturb and then change one type of biological system into another, the building of cities is a widespread transformation of the organic into the largely inorganic. Termite nests, prairie dog towns, and a few other examples are slight intimations of this process, but true concrete jungles have of course been altogether unknown prior to ours.

Universal rhodopsin

Fleshy appendages of various kinds, which routinely employ a particular developmental pathway that depends on specific developmental genes (notably one called distal-less). In the star-nosed mole, however, the appendages develop in a unique manner, without parallel elsewhere.206 Why this mole should pursue such a novel developmental route when the genetic template for appendage formation is readily available, and indeed presumably coded for in the limbs of the mole, may seem rather odd. There are, however, particular constraints. Catania and his colleagues suggest that the need to keep the neural connections, without which of course the nose is functionless, means that the standard method of 'let's build an appendage' simply is not available. Finally, remembering the topic of convergence, it is worth mentioning that the development of the elaborate nose is not without consequences for the architecture of the skull. In particular, the chewing apparatus is quite modified (e.g. weaker...

Nung Animus

We saw more hills reminiscent of Joshua Tree National Monument. Could a variant of the Joshua tree principle apply to landscape recognition Do similar landscapes evoke uncannily similar vegetation The South Atlantic was beginning, as we proceeded, to fill the low spots in the western horizon like a rising tide. We passed a battered and stripped small blue station wagon to the right. Sand dunes were beginning to drape the hills to the left. Termite mounds and grass tufts were scattered on the treeless plain. The road became increasingly rocky as we gained altitude. The dominant plant here is the spiky Euphorbia, with its poisonous milky sap. The road crested a rocky rise. A fence stretching across the plain caused a grazing discontinuity in the grassland. Soon we were back to the red silt road surface. Green and ochre vegetation was visible on quartzite slopes. Gray bushes, straw grass, and reddish termite mounds covered the grassy plain bitter melons the size of softballs were seen in...

Feeding

Royal Ontario Museum Dinosaurs

These and other therizinosaur traits are the reason why they are often considered the oddest of all theropods. With their relatively long prosauropod-like necks and stout torsos, they clearly were not well-suited for hunting and meat-eating. As a result, some paleontologists have proposed that they were best adapted for browsing on vegetation. In this hypothesis, the claws are interpreted as implements for raking tree branches. Giant ground sloths, herbivores that lived only about 12,000 years ago in North America, had similar adaptations, so this might be an example of convergent evolution. An alternative hypothesis is that such claws were used for eating insects, much like modern anteaters that use their comparable armature to tear apart termite mounds. Trace fossil evidence shows that termites had developed mounds by the Late Jurassic that resembled modern ones in Africa and Australia. Therizinosaurs show up in the geologic record by the end of the Early Cretaceous, so from an...