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Underground Fat Loss Manual

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Underground Fat Loss Manual Summary


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Fat Decimator System Summary

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Author: Kyle Cooper
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FTO and common obesity traits

Originally cloned in mice based on the identification of a fused toe phenotype associated with a 1.6 Mb deletion, the human orthologue of the mouse Fto gene, FTO at chromosome 16q12.2, was renamed by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee as the 'fat mass and obesity associated gene' in view of the striking associations found with common human obesity-related traits in Caucasian populations. Frayling and colleagues described how a cluster of linked SNPs in the first intron of FTO showed reproducible association with type 2 diabetes in the WTCCC study, represented by the specific SNP rs9939609 with an odds ratio of 1.27 (1.16-1.37, P 5 X 108) on the initial scan among 1924 cases of type 2 diabetes (Fig. 9.15) and 2938 controls. This was replicated in a further UK cohort of 3257 cases and 5346 controls (Frayling et al. 2007). However, with access to data on BMI in the original cases and replication samples, it became clear that the association was actually with raised BMI, as on adjusting...

Genetic Screening Gene Therapy Cloned Humans and Targeted Evolution

With help from the human genome project, it will soon become practical to screen for all known genetic diseases, which currently total more than 5000. There are obvious ethical and social issues that come with this technical advance, because it will also be trivial to pre-screen embryos for a wide variety of genetically determined characteristics other than defects associated with disease. Thus, it will also be possible to evaluate traits such as sex height strength eye, hair, and skin color the tendency to gain weight predisposition to alcoholism intelligence resistance to particular diseases etc., prior to embryo implantation. One concern regarding the use of genetic prescreening, should this practice become widespread, is that important sources of good genetic variability might be closely linked to the bad genes being so carefully rejected. If there were a systematic attempt to eliminate these bad genes from the human population by genetic pre-screening, the neighboring favorable...

Feeding Ecology Plant Parts

Although sifakas have morphological specializations for folivory (e.g., long gastrointestinal tract, enlarged cecum) and long gastrointestinal transit time (Campbell et al., 2000, 2004), both western and eastern sifakas actually have a quite varied diet (only in the dry season does foliage truly dominate the diet). The diet of eastern sifakas includes high proportions of foliage, fruits, seeds, and buds flowers (Table 2). P. edwardsi has the most equitable diet, with relatively equal amounts of foliage, fruits, and seeds. P. diadema at Mantadia and Tsinjoarivo are more folivorous, with 45-55 of feeding time devoted to leaves.

Body Mass Almost Doubles Before Hibernation

In order to accumulate these fat deposits, different strategies are feasible, by which either energy intake is maximized, or energy expenditure minimized. C. medius seem to employ both methods. They feed generally on flowers, nectar, fruits, gum, seeds, insects, and spiders. The proportion of animal prey varies seasonally, depending on availability, and comprises about one-fifth of the diet. During the period of extreme fat accumulation before the onset of hibernation,

Coarsegrained Spatial Heterogeneity

Consider a landscape subdivided into spatial patches or habitats that induce different fitness responses from specific genotypes. We further assume that these genotypes experience only one of these patches in their lifetime (or at least, the selectively relevant portion of their lifetime for the unit of selection of interest). As an example, consider the northern acorn barnacle (Semibalanus balanoides) on the northeastern coast of the United States (Schmidt and Rand 2001). This, as well as many other marine species, has planktonic larval dispersal, resulting in high levels of gene flow and negligible population subdivision at the larval stage. The larvae then settle and enter a completely sessile stage for the remainder of their lives. The intertidal region that they settle in is a mosaic of habitats that greatly differ in environmental parameters that affect barnacle survivorship. A specific individual only experiences the habitat in which it settled, so this is coarse-grained,...

Archeology as a paleoanthropological subject

More productive are correlations between basic physical capabilities, including the cumulative markers of effort, stress, and nutrition that can be deduced from skeletons, and artifacts, which yield detailed information about actual behavioral episodes. This explanatory power of artifacts may be demonstrated with regard to the issue of subsistence, as the prominent behavioral aspect that can be derived from Paleolithic archeological remains. For years, the question has been discussed of whether some of the human ancestral groups were hunting or actually scavenging (Blumenschine et al. 1994). While traces from carcass-processing give evidence of the range of the prey according to species and age distribution, as well as show the use of the different body parts, finds like the spears from Schoningen (Thieme 1997) indicate sophisticated hunting activities among H. heidelbergensis. Similarly, clues to the composition of the diet can be gathered not only from the zoological and rare...

Some Final Thoughts on Aridity Chronology and the Evolution of Homo

It is also worth noting that because our understanding of the dietary ecology of early Homo and its predecessors remains nascent, it is very difficult to meaningfully predict likely outcomes of climatic and environmental changes for these taxa. For instance, given the dietary differences between Pan troglodytes and Papio ursinus today, would we not expect the two taxa to respond differently to prolonged climate-induced deforestation The hard data for the diets of Australopithecus are increasingly robust (e.g., Scott et al., 2005 Sponheimer et al., 2005 Grine et al., 2006a, b), but remain maddeningly difficult to interpret. Furthermore, our understanding of the diet of early Homo is certainly poorer, as direct, non-genetic evidence (e.g., dental microwear, stable isotopes) of the diets of individuals is very scanty (but see van der Merwe et al., 2008 Ungar and Scott, 2009). Stone tools and butchered animal bones almost certainly indicate that early Homo ate meat (e.g., Blumenschine,...

Perspectives from comparative socioecology

Patterns and correlations observed in these recent socioecological studies are sufficiently well documented and robust to provide some reasonable working guidelines for the patterns of social development during the later stages of human evolution. Two factors seem especially relevant to an analysis of the social organization of European Neanderthal populations first, the demands imposed by an increasing reliance on mainly animal food resources in the diet, particularly where this involved a major component of hunting second, the demands imposed by the general delay in rates of growth and maturation of young children which characterized the later stages of human evolution, coupled with a rapid increase in the size (and therefore the nutritional demands of early growth) of the human brain.

Interpretive Summary And Conclusions

There the rates of vegetative production were probably relatively high, providing a considerable biomass of immature, relatively nutritious shoots and leaves. Thus, the dietary aptitudes for omnivory appear exaptive for adoption of low-fiber herbivory and adaptation for low-fiber herbivory exaptive for mixed diet or even limited kinds of high-fiber diets. Such patterns appear in extant tetrapods, perhaps most strikingly in mammals and birds, but also among lizards such as the variation in the diet of Cnemidophorus from entirely insectivorous to predominately herbivorous described earlier.

Adaptation As Polygenic Process

If a person does not have the A S genotype at the j-Hb locus in a malarial region, the person could still be protected against malaria through the G6PD A- allele. Thus, the Bantu-speaking peoples adapted to malaria as they expanded into wet, tropical Africa with the Malaysian agricultural complex not only by the C and S alleles at the j - Hb locus but also by the A- allele at the G6PD locus. However, as with the S allele, there are fitness tradeoffs associated with the A- and other G6PD-deficient alleles. Although reducing the red blood cell's capacity to withstand oxidant stress provides resistance to the malarial parasite by causing premature lysis of infected cells, it also makes the red blood cells subject to lysis when exposed to oxidizing agents, thereby resulting in hemolytic anemia. For example, about 25 of the people with G6PD deficiency experience an adverse reaction to eating fava beans, a bean containing strong oxidizing agents. This sensitivity, known as favism, can...

The Evidence of Peking Mans Diet Brain and Hackberries Anyone

Ecology can tell us much about the behavior of Homo erectus, particularly its dietary behavior. Vegetable foods were undoubtedly important to this still semitropical species, but protein from meat was also demonstrated to be a major aspect of erectus s cuisine. Fire was therefore probably important. As we know from the archaeological data, some of the meat that Homo erectus scrounged in the cave and cut off of old kills of carnivores was less than fresh, and natural selection may have favored a taste for seared steak at this time. Certainly, as we now know from genetic studies, carnivore tapeworms had already colonized the hominid digestive tract. Any behavior that reduced this type of parasitism would have been beneficial to the species. What of the rest of the diet of Homo erectus Binford and Stone's discovery of the remnants of roasted horse heads at Locality 1 is important because it shows that organ meat in this case, the brain was also eaten. The brain is a fatty (lipid-rich)...

Box The Messel Oil Shales Total Preservation Of Mammalian Fossils

Trunk Region Frog

The extraordinary conditions of fossilization at Messel have allowed detailed studies of the diet of Leptictidium. In one specimen, several dozen pieces of bone were found, some of which could be identified as limb bones and vertebrae of a small reptile, possibly a lizard. A second skeleton contained bones of a small mammal and another contained fragments of chitin from the exoskeleton of large insects. The gut regions also show a variety of plant fragments, so that Leptictidium had a very varied diet.

Indicators of Dental Health

The patterns of wear in this population of ring-tailed lemurs are clearly related to ecology, diet, and tooth use. In L. catta, the most frequently worn and missing teeth (P3, P4, and M1) are those used in the initial processing of tamarind fruit (Cuozzo and Sauther, 2004a, 2006, in press). This fruit (Tamarindus indica) is both hard and tough when ripe (Yamashita, 2000), and dominates the diet of ring-tailed lemurs living in gallery forest (Sauther, 1998 Simmen et al., in press), despite their opportunistic omnivory (e.g., Sauther et al., 1999). In contrast, P. v. verreauxi displays more excessive wear on P3, P4, and M3 (sifakas have only two premolars in each quadrant, see Table 1 e.g., Swindler, 2002 Tattersall, 1982 ), with M1 and M2 often retaining much of the original crown structure (Cuozzo and Sauther, in press Cuozzo, unpublished data). The more limited wear and lower frequency of tooth loss in P. v. verreauxi at Beza Mahafaly when compared to L. catta likely reflects...

Perfect Primate Predators

Which enables them to utilize primates of all sizes in their diets. Consequently, the range of non-human primate species in the diet of leopards is rather extensive. In Africa they are known to prey on bonobos (pygmy chimpanzees), common chimpanzees, western lowland gorillas, many species of rain-forest guenons, vervets, and species of savanna and The proportion of primate prey in the diet differs greatly among species of cats, but leopards commonly consume primates throughout their extensive range. During a classic study of leopard ecology in C te d'Ivoire, Bernard Hoppe-Dominik discovered that seven different species of primates accounted for about l6 of the prey in the diet of leopards. Based on analysis of leopard feces, George Schaller found that Hanuman langurs composed almost one-third of leopard diets at a site in India. Researchers reported one of the highest frequencies of primates in a leopard diet (about 82 ) at another research site in India. Primatologist Lynne Isbell...

Diet And Feeding Ecology

Simmen et al. (2006b) present an exhaustive summary of all plants eaten by L. catta at the Berenty, Beza Mahafaly, and Antserananomby sites. Feeding ecology has been studied over annual cycles at both Berenty and Beza Mahafaly L. catta use 82 plant species for leaves, 40 for fruits, and 16 for flowers at Berenty and 40 species for leaves, 28 for fruit, and 16 for flowers at Beza Mahafaly. They use resources as they become available, and key foods (other than tamarind) can change from one month to the next. At both sites, two or three plant species comprise the major part of the diet each month and animals shift to different plants species when they become available (Sauther, 1992, 1998 Simmen et al., 2006b). Concentrations of secondary compounds in L. catta's plant foods also correspond with the marked seasonality in this region of Madagascar. Simmen et al. (2006a) found strong seasonal differences in the proportions of protein, pheno-lics, and tannins in the diet of L. catta at...

Dental Development and Microstructure

As with morphology and dental development, dental microstructure reflects the feeding ecology of extant (and fossil) lemurs. When compared to anthropoids, lemurs (and extant prosimians in general) possess relatively thin dental enamel (e.g., Godfrey et al., 2005 Martin et al., 2003 Shellis et al., 1998). Because enamel thickness generally corresponds to diet among primates (although not a perfect relationship e.g., Maas and Dumont, 1999 Martin et al., 2003 ), Shellis et al. (1998) argued that, given their thicker enamel, the diet of anthropoids likely consists of a higher proportion of tough foods than does that of prosimians. As seen in Table 2, only highly derived forms such as extant Daubentonia and the large, subfossil Archaeolemur, both of which are quite specialized in their dietary adaptations, possess thick enamel, comparable to well-known hard-object feeders, for example the extant New World capuchins (Cebus) (e.g., Godfrey et al., 2005) and the fossil hominid Paranthropus...

Zoogeography of African Pliocene Hominini

However, stable carbon isotope values for ungulate dental enamels at As Duma suggest not only browse but also a significant component of C4 grasses in the diet, and we should beware of the dangers of a small number of early hominin localities misleading us about habitat preferences and true distributions. Further fragmentary material from the Middle Awash Valley dated to even older deposits, around 5.8-5.2 Ma, was referred to A. ramidus (Haile-Selassie 2001), but was later given status as a separate subspecies, A. ramidus kadabba, on the basis of still more primitive dental characteristics that would presumably place it even closer to a common ancestor of humans and chimps. More recently still, Haile-Selassie et al. (2004) have argued that this form should be referred to as fully separate species, A. kadabba, which they consider is very similar to Orrorin and Sahelanthropus, and thereby infer that Late Miocene diversity was less than would seem to be...

The Diseases By Organ System

Baylisascaris Schroederi

Cytological examination of excreted mucus often reveals mild granulocytic inflammation, but does not point to obvious aetiologies (B. Rideout, unpublished observations). Mucus excretion and gastrointestinal pain may be associated with insufficient dietary bamboo. However, the association between mucus excretion and bamboo may be entirely coincidental, and other aetiological possibilities have not been fully explored. For example, pathogenic organisms have occasionally been cultured from mucous faeces (Goltenboth, 1985a Villares et al, 1985 Gual-Sil et al, 2000), but not to an extent that could strengthen a causative association. Spore-forming, Gram-positive rods are also occasionally seen in smears of excreted mucus but likewise have not been correlated with clinical disease or mucoid stools (see Chapter 15). Faecal culture of an adult male giant panda (SB 187) at the Madrid Zoo who suffered frequent gastrointestinal disturbances demonstrated E. coli proliferation nearly every time he...

The First Amniote Animals

Increased Intake of Dietary Water An animal eating succulent plants ingests more dietary water than a carnivore does, although plants may be more difficult to digest. Green plants have approximately 1.5 times as much nitrogen as meat or insects per unit of energy and an order of magnitude more water content (Shoemaker and Nagy, 1977). Plants also have higher osmolytes than animal food (Shoemaker and Nagy, 1977). Fossil evidence indicates that the early amniotes were insectivorous (Carroll, 1988), but that herbivory developed early in the amniote lineage (Hotton et al, this volume). Insects have only slightly more water per kilocalorie than meat but have more than double the nitrogen, much of which would have to be excreted as wastes. Omnivory would have been ideal for the earliest amniotes in order to maximize benefits and minimize problems of water balance. Increased body temperature would have facilitated increased use of plant matter in the diet. A further means of adding dietary...

Discussion And Conclusions

Comparisons with undisturbed forests indicate that there are general similarities in the ruffed lemurs' diets in different habitats with regards to the overall food categories eaten. Field research on the diets of Varecia at different sites have shown that this species is highly frugivorous (see Table 2). When the data for both sexes are combined from studies on wild V. rubra, diets are similar from season to season, comprised mainly of fruits (Vasey, 1997). In the present study, it was expected that Varecia living in highly disturbed habitats would have general dietary patterns different from those living in undisturbed habitats. My results demonstrated that they remain predominantly frugivorous regardless of habitat type. This confirms that Varecia is an obligate frugivore (Balko, 1998). While dietary diversity fluctuated monthly, the percentage of fruit in the diet always outnumbered the percentage of nonfruit items, except during the month of November 1999 (the second driest month...

New Evidence About Adaptive Grade

In this brief review it is not possible to review all of the research that has been carried out since 1964 relevant to determining the grade of potential early Homo taxa. Instead, I will consider some of the research relevant to the reconstruction of the diet, locomotion and life history of these early hominins. The results of the Ungar et al. (2006) study, when combined with an assessment of the dietary significance of differences in the occlusal slope of worn postcanine teeth (Ungar, 2004), suggest that any differences in microwear between the teeth of specimens assigned to H. habilis and those assigned to an archaic hominin such as Au. afarensis, may be due more to differences in the physical properties of fall back foods rather than to differences in the physical properties of their preferred diets (Ungar and Scott, 2009). The more striking result of the study was the difference between the microwear seen in teeth assigned to H. habilis and those assigned to H. erectus. Ungar et...

Big Brains And Intelligence

Certainly these issues were at play in early hominins and all of them could explain the ratcheting up of brain size, but because human brains are larger and capable of higher cognitive functions than other primates, something else must have been at play. Brain tissue is very expensive to grow and to maintain. Developing such large brains would have required strong selection. An enhanced nutrient-rich diet, particularly rich in essential fatty acids provided by animal protein, would certainly help. It is probable that the incorporation of meat into the diet which happened to coincide with body size and brain size increase during H. erectus times contributed to brain size evolution. It is not concretely known why selection favored brain size increase, although it is easy to think ofreasons to do with culture, diet, socialization, reproduction, etc. The genes microcephalin and ASPM likely played roles. Microcephalin is a critical regulator of brain development and mutations in the gene...

Ecology And Behavior Diet

The brown lemur complex has been characterized as highly flexible in its ecology, in accordance with its broad geographic distribution which spans many distinct habitat types and elevational zones (Tattersall and Sussman, 1998 Goodman and Ganzhorn, 2004). Brown lemurs have relatively high dietary diversity (Tattersall and Sussman, 1998) and have demonstrated niche contraction and expansion in response to community structure (Vasey, 2000). Guided by community ecology theory, nearly all studies of brown lemur ecology have assessed adaptations in juxtaposition to those of sympatric presumed competitors. Accordingly, most researchers have investigated brown lemurs in conjunction with a sympatric lemur species (Lemur catta Sussman, 1974, 1977 Eulemur rubriventer Overdorff, 1991, 1993 E. coronatus Freed, 1996 Varecia variegata rubra Vasey, 1997, 2000, 2002 E. mongoz Rasmussen, 1999). Many mechanisms have been proposed to allow brown lemurs to share their habitats with these potential...

Smallbodied Omnivores

Nal, and is an agile arborealist, capable of making leaps of a meter or more in distance. The diet is very similar to those of cheirogaleids, consisting of insects, tree exudates, flower products, and even secretions of homopteran insects, as also observed in Phaner and Mirza (Hladik et al., 1980 Pages, 1980 Smith and Ganzhorn, 1996 Smith, 1984c, 1984d Sussman, 1999 Wright and Martin, 1995). Gymnobelideus resembles the primates Callithrix, Cebuella, and Phaner in gouging or scraping tree trunks to generate the flow of exudates (Charles-Dominique and Petter, 1980). The arthropod prey of Gymnobelideus consists of tree crickets, beetles, moths, and spiders (Lee and Cockburn, 1985). In addition, these marsupials feed on manna (a carbohydrate exudate from eucaplypt leaves). Among phalangeroids, Gymnobelideus is one of the best overall matches ecomorphologically to the primitive primate Mirza, the exudate specialist Phaner, and the primate-like didelphid Caluromys.

Amniote Skin Fossil Hunters

The major changes ushered in with the amniotes included the elimination of the need to lay eggs in water, the acquisition of a greater terrestrial mobility through modifications in skeletal structure, the sensory motor control system, skin armor, and an expansion of the diet to include both insectivory and herbivory (Romer, 1966 Carroll, 1970, 1988 Shear, 1991 Packard and Seymour, this volume Stewart, this volume Hotton et al., this volume).

Interpretation Of The Artistic Complex

Moreover, some researchers have mentioned the non-existence of Bison in the English Late Pleistocene palaeontological record, but we wonder whether this is an erroneous interpretation. In the publication by J. B. Campbell (1970) on the excavations at Creswell Crags, quite apart from the remains found in the Mesolithic level of Mother Grundy's Parlour, he says that in stratum C and D C Bos Bison sp. is present, while it is abundant in level D. In addition, W. Boyd Dawkins (1876) cites the existence in Robin Hood Cave of thirty remains (four mandibles or teeth and twenty-six bones) of Bison priscus in the cave's lower level, which were not introduced by hyenas (since they bear no tooth marks) but perhaps by streams. However, in the intermediate level, the same author reports the presence of six bones of this same species. One needs to take into account the fact that this stratigraphic horizon contains clear evidence of a human presence through the existence of...


Feeding transitions (e.g. changing the dilution of formula) can cause gastric upset and diarrhoea. Formula changes should be gradual to ensure that the neonate is not suddenly overwhelmed by a fluctuating diet. Signs of underfeeding include restlessness, searching, frequent crying and poor growth. Indications of overfeeding include fussiness at feeding time, regurgitation, bloating, excessive weight gain and diarrhoea. The latter, even if dietary in origin, can lead to serious dehydration or hypogly-caemia. In this case, parenteral fluid support should be provided by diluting formula with water to one-third to one-half concentrations or by offering electrolyte solutions orally until the stool returns to normal. Body weight is a critical metric for monitoring successful growth in relation to same-age cohorts or earlier-produced individuals. Absolute body mass is also used to determine stomach capacity that, in turn, is used to calculate amount of formula to provide (see above). For the...

Feeding Ecology

Most feeding data are available on M. murinus (Hill, 1953 Webb, 1953 Petter, 1962 Martin, 1972, 1973 Sussman, 1978 Hladik et al., 1980 Barre et al., 1988 Corbin and Schmid, 1995 Schmelting, 2000 Lutermann, 2001 Genin, 2003 Radespiel et al., 2006). This species consumes animal matter such as insect secretions (of homopteran larvae, Flatidae), arthropods, or even small vertebrates as well as vegetable matter that consists of fruits, flowers, nectar, gum, and even sometimes leaves and buds (Table 2 for a complete list of all published plant species eaten by mouse lemurs). Seasonal variation in the diet is probably high (e.g., Schmelting, 2000 Lutermann, 2001) but remains to be studied in detail. However, it seems to be well supported that insect secretions and gum are of major importance during the dry season when fruits and insects are relatively rare (Corbin and Schmid, 1995 Genin, 2003 Radespiel et al., 2006). A preliminary study on the feeding ecology of M. ravelobensis (Radespiel et...


Dentition not only yields information about age at the time of death but can also give researchers clues regarding the dietary habits of an individual or populations of people. Wear patterns in younger individuals may suggest that sand inadvertently mixed in with the diet. High dental attrition at younger ages suggests a diet high in carbohydrates. Well-preserved teeth with little wear and little attrition may suggest a higher-status individual. Complete dental surveys can be conducted using the VE. In the case of dental attrition, the VE can provide images of the mandibular and maxillary surfaces to document to what degree reabsorption has occurred, indicating when the tooth or teeth were lost. Additionally, horizontal growth arrest lines can be seen on permanent teeth, suggesting past systemic infectious processes. Abscesses with bone loss can be seen, suggesting that poor dental

Milk and meat

The diet of Lasius niger is mixed, with proteins and sugars, and the ants adapt their behaviour to this nutritional requirement. When they lack sugars, they harvest honeydew from aphids when they are deficient in proteins, they eat the actual homo-ptera. The size of the flock also has a bearing on this if the ants have enough aphids to keep themselves well supplied with sugars, then they kill more of them to eat. Lasius niger actually have associations with two aphid species which they use indiscriminately as a supply of honeydew or as prey, depending on which one they happen to find first. From this it can be seen that there is no hard and fast boundary between mutualism and exploitation.


In comparison with the other subspecies, the diet of H. g. griseus is the best known and includes a diverse array of plants. In Analamazoatra Special Reserve (ASR), Wright (1986) reported that bamboo (Bambusa sp.) constitutes 90 of the animals' diet during the austral winter months. Like Pollock (1986), Wright also found H. g. griseus eating leafy parts of other plants and some fruit. Long-term studies conducted in RNP confirmed that bamboo is the mainstay of H. g. griseus (Grassi, 2001 Overdorff et al., 1997 Tan, 1999, 2000). In particular, at Talatakely, approximately 80 of the lemur's annual diet is comprised of bamboo (Cathariostachys madagascariensis, Cephalostachyum cf. perrieri, Cephalostachyum sp., Nastus elongatus, and Nastus sp.) parts ingested include the base of young leaves, immature pseudopetioles, branch shoots (i.e., emerged from the nodes), and ground shoots. The animals also consume a variety of nonbamboo foliage, fruit, and flowers (Tan, 1999, 2000). In fact,...


An increase in brain size must accompany an increase in body size, so H. erectus could not have fit the same sized infant's brain and skull as expected for its body size through its narrow hips. That is, H. erectus may have shortened gestation (i.e., the period of fetal development in the uterus) to be physically capable of giving birth to larger brained babies through its relatively small birth canal. An earlier birth results in a more helpless, less developed, altricial infant. So it is probable, that with H. erectus, higher levels of parental investment, especially from the father (paternal investment), began to evolve. Selection would favor such a change if it fostered brain growth and development, especially if selection was acting strongly on brain size increase in the species. Other major changes are correlated, like the incorporation of meat into the diet, food-sharing, and the creation of home bases where males provisioned females and offspring and where females localized...

Koala ecology

Koalas have long been known as fussy eaters. Of the 600 or so species of eucalypts in Australia, the koala has been observed to feed upon or found sitting in only 120 species, but only 14 of these can be considered to be primary food sources. It has also been observed in less than 30 non-eucalypt trees, including Acacia, Allocasuarina, Banksia, Callitris, Hakea, Leptospermum and Melaleuca.3 As limited as the diet of the koala appears, when compared to other marsupial species, some biologists consider the koala to be a 'generalist' feeder. The greater glider, for example, is even more selective in its choice of eucalypt leaves. Koalas feed primarily on a subgenus of Eucalyptus called Sym-phyomyrtus that includes some 400 species, while greater gliders feed on eucalypts of the subgenus Monocalyptus, of which there are only 150 species.4 a single mouthful. Eucalypt foliage offers an abundant food source, but the koala has had to evolve a number of physiological strategies in order to...

Food and feeding

Wombat Long Long Grass

At the western extreme of the bare-nosed wombat's range, in the dune country of the Coorong and Messent National Parks in south-eastern South Australia, Katy Mallett and Brian Cooke investigated the diet of the wombat by analysing wombat scats. They found that the bulk of any individual wombat's diet appeared to be made up of two or three plant species, although the species varied between wombats and seasons. In any season most of the diet consisted of only a few plant species Australian salt grass (Distichlis distichophylla), perennial rye-grass (Lolium perenne), spear grass (Stipa sp.), tassel rope-rush (Hypolaena fastigiata), wire rapier-sedge (Lepidosperma semiteres), hair-sedge (Tetraria capillaris), some herbaceous material and several unidentified grasses.

Info About Pandas

Estimated adequate nutrient concentrations of diets offered to captive animals are based on species' natural diets, gastrointestinal morphology and established nutrient requirements of similar species h Nutrient intake calculated based on actual annual food consumption of three adult giant pandas and chemical analysis of those foods intake of bamboo species based on equal distribution of actual bamboo intake over five commonly offered species intake of bamboo components (leaf, branch, culm) based on prediction equations of the relationship between total bamboo fresh mass and bamboo component diy mass (Edwards et al., unpublished data) nd, nutrient concentrations not determined by chemical analysis c Recommended nutrient allowances (4.0 kcal ME g-1) to support maintenance in adult dogs (NRC, 2004) d Minimum nutrient profiles for dog food (3.5 kcal ME g-1) to support maintenance in adult dogs (AAFCO, 2004) e Due to poor bioavailability, iron from carbonate or oxide sources that are...

And Physiology

Anatomy Skull Carnivore

Most mammals maintain a correlation between gut length and body length such that the greater the herbivorous proportion of the diet, the longer the gut length. Intestinal length of four to five times body length is typical of a true carnivore (e.g. cat), whereas six to eight times is representative of an omnivore (e.g. raccoon), and the ratio in a fully herbivorous ungulate (e.g. deer) is about 10 to 22 (Davis, 1964). The giant panda diverges from this pattern entirely in that, despite its wholly herbivorous diet, its gut is only four times as long as its body

Box Who ate my nuts

The teeth are sharp and curved, and the edges carry serrations like a steak knife - clear evidence of meat eating. Close study of the teeth also reveals minute scratches that were produced by the bones and other tough food material in the diet (Barrett & Rayfield 2006). Bones of the prey offer clues too some examples show that T. rex could penetrate deep into the bones of its victims, but also that it chomped and tore at the flesh in such a way that it sometimes left dozens of tooth marks as it stripped the bones. All these circumstantial discoveries add to a rich picture of how one fossil animal fed.

Modern Animals

The main avenue of water intake for many reptiles is in the diet, with intake rates ranging from 0.7 to 2.7 of body mass per day in small arid-habitat species. Metabolic water production in reptiles is determined by the rate of energy metabolism and ranges from 0.1 to 0.5 of body mass per day. This amount accounts for 10 to 20 of total water gain in several small, diurnal, arid-habitat reptiles (Shoemaker and Nagy, 1977). Many species living in temperate Terrestrial reptiles can dehydrate their feces fairly well, as dry as 40 water by mass, and ranging from 20 to 60 of total water loss. Herbivorous reptiles produce more feces per unit of metabolizable energy than carnivorous reptiles, due to the lower digestibility and the lower energy content of plants compared to animal matter. However, if herbivores obtain succulent green plant matter to eat, they ingest much more dietary water than do carnivores (Shoemaker and Nagy, 1977). eliminated in solid form, saving the water otherwise...

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