Chemical equilibria in environmental waters

Surface and subsurface waters often contain species (both ionic and neutral) that can have deleterious effects on animals and plants, and most importantly, on human health. The equilibrium aqueous chemistry of pollutants is one of many scientific aspects of their behavior in the environment. Potentially-harmful dissolved species range from inorganic ions to organic molecules to metals. Moreover, the oxidation state of the metals greatly influences the hazards posed by these species. An iconic example is hexavalent chromium, which is much more

dangerous than its lower oxidation states. Lead as the elemental metal is much less likely to be transported in the environment than the divalent ion dissolved in water.

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Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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