Fig The ring and chain forms of glucose

As indicated in the figure, the ring and chain forms are in equilibrium. To reach the chain form from the ring configuration, the bond between the ring oxygen and carbon atom number 5 breaks, the oxygen becomes double-bonded to carbon atom number 1 and the OH group on carbon No. 1 moves to carbon No. 5. This transformation does not occur so simply, however. The two isomers are end states of four intermediate molecular configurations.

Numbering of the carbon atoms is helpful in following reactions of glucose. For example, if an orthophosphate ion replaces the hydroxyl group on top of the ring structure in Fig. 11.2, the reaction would be written as:

indicating that the phosphate group is attached to carbon atom 6 of the glucose molecule1

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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