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Liquid-liquid: example: distribution of a solute between two immiscible solvents, such as acetic acid between water and a hydrocarbon. This example contains three components, but because the solvents are immiscible (meaning no mutual solubility), the thermodynamics governing the distribution of the solute is formally identical to the two-component case. Liquid-liquid extraction is a basic unit operation in the chemical and biochemical process industries.

Two condensed phases: solids and liquids are collectively known as condensed phases. Analysis of equilibria between condensed phases usually ignores the gas phase. The condensed phase combinations include liquid-solid and solid-solid. The many crystallographic forms of solids are each regarded as distinct phases, so these equilibria show considerable variety. The subject is known as binary phase diagram representation.

In each of the above examples, the objective is to determine the concentrations of components A and B in the two coexisting phases. In condensed-phase equilibria, identification of the stable phases I and II is also an objective.

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Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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