Since proton pumping provides only 20 kJ of reversible work per mole of H+, the passage of approximately three protons through the ATP synthase enzyme is needed to produce 1 mole of ATP.

The theory described above, called the chemiosmotic model, was proposed by Peter Mitchell circa 1961. It has withstood the rigors of considerable experimental testing, and won Mitchell a Nobel Prize.

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Getting Started With Solar

Getting Started With Solar

Do we really want the one thing that gives us its resources unconditionally to suffer even more than it is suffering now? Nature, is a part of our being from the earliest human days. We respect Nature and it gives us its bounty, but in the recent past greedy money hungry corporations have made us all so destructive, so wasteful.

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