Since proton pumping provides only 20 kJ of reversible work per mole of H+, the passage of approximately three protons through the ATP synthase enzyme is needed to produce 1 mole of ATP.

The theory described above, called the chemiosmotic model, was proposed by Peter Mitchell circa 1961. It has withstood the rigors of considerable experimental testing, and won Mitchell a Nobel Prize.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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