Small molecules called ligands can attach to specific binding sites on a large molecule (called a macromolecule) such as a protein, thereby greatly altering its chemical activity. Ligands range from H+ to large organic molecules such as stearic acid (Ci7H25COOH). Metal ions such as Ca2+ can also serve as ligands. The binding sites are often metal atoms embedded in the macromolecule. Ligand binding is an equilibrium reaction treatable by modest extension of the methods of chemical thermodynamics. Binding affinity is characterized by the equilibrium (dissociation) constant for the reaction:
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Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.