Liquidliquid extraction

Another common phase-distribution system is the partitioning of a solute species between two immiscible solvents, designated as phases I and II. At equilibrium, the chemical potentials of solute A in the two phases, as given by Eq (8.3), are equal. The common pure-A molar free energy cancels, leading to the equilibrium relation:

x11 Y1

The ratio of the activity coefficients of A in the two solvents is called the distribution coefficient of A. As long as A is dilute in both solvents, the activity coefficients are independent of the concentration of A, but in general are not equal.

Getting Started With Solar

Getting Started With Solar

Do we really want the one thing that gives us its resources unconditionally to suffer even more than it is suffering now? Nature, is a part of our being from the earliest human days. We respect Nature and it gives us its bounty, but in the recent past greedy money hungry corporations have made us all so destructive, so wasteful.

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