Liquidliquid extraction

Another common phase-distribution system is the partitioning of a solute species between two immiscible solvents, designated as phases I and II. At equilibrium, the chemical potentials of solute A in the two phases, as given by Eq (8.3), are equal. The common pure-A molar free energy cancels, leading to the equilibrium relation:

x11 Y1

The ratio of the activity coefficients of A in the two solvents is called the distribution coefficient of A. As long as A is dilute in both solvents, the activity coefficients are independent of the concentration of A, but in general are not equal.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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