Mixtures and Solutions defined measures of composition

Up to this stage, only systems containing one component have been analyzed. These simple substances can exist (at equilibrium) in up to three phases. This limit is imposed by the phase rule (Eq (1.21)), F = C + 2 - P where C is the number of components, P the number of phases and F the number of degrees of freedom, or adjustable thermodynamic variables.

The objective of the present chapter is to understand the thermodynamics of single-phase (P = 1), two-component (C = 2) systems. The characteristics of mixtures of ideal gases and the simplest models of nonideal binary solid or nonaqueous liquid solutions will be treated. Temperature and total pressure are specified.

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Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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