Nonideal Liquid and Solid Solutions

Although gas mixtures can for most purposes be treated as ideal, liquid and solid solutions are generally significantly nonideal. The strong intermolecular interactions that are responsible for the existence of pure condensed phases are also the source of their deviations from ideality when mixed in solutions. A binary solution of A and B is ideal if the average of the A-A and B-B intermolecular forces is just equal to the strength of the A-B interaction (Ref. 1 contains a thorough explanation of this behavior). Nonideal behavior affects all extensive properties of solid and liquid solutions, namely V, U, H, S, F, and G. It is manifest as a departure from linear variation of these properties with changes in the number of moles of one of the components. Linearity in ideal solutions is shown by the formulas for U and H given by Eqs (7.2b) and (7.2c).

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Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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