Although gas mixtures can for most purposes be treated as ideal, liquid and solid solutions are generally significantly nonideal. The strong intermolecular interactions that are responsible for the existence of pure condensed phases are also the source of their deviations from ideality when mixed in solutions. A binary solution of A and B is ideal if the average of the A-A and B-B intermolecular forces is just equal to the strength of the A-B interaction (Ref. 1 contains a thorough explanation of this behavior). Nonideal behavior affects all extensive properties of solid and liquid solutions, namely V, U, H, S, F, and G. It is manifest as a departure from linear variation of these properties with changes in the number of moles of one of the components. Linearity in ideal solutions is shown by the formulas for U and H given by Eqs (7.2b) and (7.2c).
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