Reactions involving solutions

The only difference between chemical reactions in which liquid or solid reactants and/or products are in solution and the pure-component reactions treated in Sect.9.9 is the modification of the chemical potential of the components in solution. The chemical potential for dissolved species is given by Eq (7.29):

If species i were pure, its activity would be unity, and the condition ^ = go used in Sect. 9.9 would be recovered. For most solutions, gio in Eq (9.43) is pure-substance value. This assignment assumes that the physical state of the species in solution and in the pure state are the same. For example, an aqueous alcohol solution and pure alcohol are both liquids. On the other hand, a gas such as hydrogen dissociates upon entering a metal, and the H atoms are part of a solid lattice. Pure solid hydrogen would an inappropriate standard or reference state. This complexity is taken up in the following section.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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