Reactions involving solutions

The only difference between chemical reactions in which liquid or solid reactants and/or products are in solution and the pure-component reactions treated in Sect.9.9 is the modification of the chemical potential of the components in solution. The chemical potential for dissolved species is given by Eq (7.29):

If species i were pure, its activity would be unity, and the condition ^ = go used in Sect. 9.9 would be recovered. For most solutions, gio in Eq (9.43) is pure-substance value. This assignment assumes that the physical state of the species in solution and in the pure state are the same. For example, an aqueous alcohol solution and pure alcohol are both liquids. On the other hand, a gas such as hydrogen dissociates upon entering a metal, and the H atoms are part of a solid lattice. Pure solid hydrogen would an inappropriate standard or reference state. This complexity is taken up in the following section.

Getting Started With Solar

Getting Started With Solar

Do we really want the one thing that gives us its resources unconditionally to suffer even more than it is suffering now? Nature, is a part of our being from the earliest human days. We respect Nature and it gives us its bounty, but in the recent past greedy money hungry corporations have made us all so destructive, so wasteful.

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