The last term in this equation is the result of the dissolution of X in Z. Measuring the EMF of this cell determines the activity coefficient of X in the X/Z solution.

Example The following is a modification of the example given in Sect. 10.3. Here X = Ni, Y = Fe, and

Z = Pd (an inert metal). The activity of Ni in the Ni-Pd alloy is 0.5 and the temperature is 1000oC. With so = 0.35 V from the example in Sect. 10.3, Eq (10.11) yields:

1.986 x10-3 x 1273

2x 23.06

Dilution of Ni in Pd increases the cell voltage because the tendency of NiO to be converted to Ni is enhanced by depressing the activity of Ni by alloying (Le Chatelier's principle).

Problems 10.1 and 10.6 involve cells with electrodes containing alloys that behave as nonideal solutions.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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