Rt

= [Na+ ]R+ [Cl- ]R+ [M z+ ]r - ( [Na+]L + [Cl- ]L ) (11.49)

Eliminating the ion concentrations using Eq (11.47), (11.42), (11.44) and (11.45) yields the final result:

Comparison of this result with Eq (11.41) (noting that Cmm/Mmm = [MCLZ]o) shows that the first term is the effect on the osmotic pressure of the macromolecule, ionized or not. The second term represents two effects: the added sodium chloride and the charge on the macromolecule. If NaCl is absent, Eq (11.50) reduces to:

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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