= [Na+ ]R+ [Cl- ]R+ [M z+ ]r - ( [Na+]L + [Cl- ]L ) (11.49)

Eliminating the ion concentrations using Eq (11.47), (11.42), (11.44) and (11.45) yields the final result:

Comparison of this result with Eq (11.41) (noting that Cmm/Mmm = [MCLZ]o) shows that the first term is the effect on the osmotic pressure of the macromolecule, ionized or not. The second term represents two effects: the added sodium chloride and the charge on the macromolecule. If NaCl is absent, Eq (11.50) reduces to:

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Getting Started With Solar

Getting Started With Solar

Do we really want the one thing that gives us its resources unconditionally to suffer even more than it is suffering now? Nature, is a part of our being from the earliest human days. We respect Nature and it gives us its bounty, but in the recent past greedy money hungry corporations have made us all so destructive, so wasteful.

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