Specimen

Fig. 9.4 Gas-flow furnace for generating very small oxygen pressures

The closed-system analysis can be applied to this open system by considering the gas to consist of small packets (circles in Fig. 9.4) in which equilibrium is attained. The method is useful when the required oxygen pressures are too small to be reliably maintained in an He/O2 gas mixture.

Typical applications where the oxygen pressure is critical are corrosion testing and control of the oxygen contents of ceramics.

Example The C02/C0 ratio in the gas entering a furnace at 2000K is 2 and no 02 is present. Because the equilibrium concentration of oxygen in the hot zone is quite small (about 1% in the closed-system example above), a good approximation is to set the C02/C0 ratio in the equilibrium gas equal to 2 as well. Using Eq (9.27), this yields the result:

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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