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The extent of ligand binding to a macromolecule is often measured spectroscopically. In the presence of a concentration [So] of the binding sites, the instrument detects the concentration of unbound ligand, [L], as a function of the (known) total ligand concentration, [Lo]. The latter is determined by adding ligand to a solution that does not contain the macromolecule so that the detection instrument responds to the total ligand concentration. The data are plotted as 1 -[L]/[Lo] versus [Lo] and compared to the theoretical model expressed by Eq (11.17). By combining Eqs (11.15) with (11.14), the quantity obtainable from experiment is expressed as:

which yields the fraction of ligand bounds to sites on the macromolecule:

Figure 11.9 is a plot of Eqs (11.20) and (11.17) for various values of K and [So] = 5 mM.

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Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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