Wind Energy DIY Guide

Home Wind Turbines

Build home wind turbines or residential wind turbines. Learn how residential wind power works. These instructions to build a windmill include a 1,000 watt and a 3,000 watt versions. This e-book is full of pictures and diagrams to explain the concepts: testing with 4 blades. testing with 6 blades. how to make Free homemade wind turbine blades and it will only take about an hour to finish a set of 3. a page full of equations and examples of how to use them to figure out power, rpm, tsr, windspeed etc. (units are in miles per hour and feet) how to find Free fork lift batteries and how to make them as good as new. making a homemade de-sulfator so you can pulse any battery back into new condition. what kind of generator to look for and how to get the best prices. how to make a simple curling system to protect the windmill in high winds. how to charge several banks of batteries all at once while pulsing them back to health. How to make a 1,000 watt wind turbine for less than $150 (including tower) How to make a 3,000 watt wind turbine for about $220! Read more...

Home Wind Turbines Summary


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I usually find books written on this category hard to understand and full of jargon. But the writer was capable of presenting advanced techniques in an extremely easy to understand language.

In addition to being effective and its great ease of use, this eBook makes worth every penny of its price.

Solar Radiative and Particle Forcing of the Earth Like Planets

The solar wind input power for the Earth is obtained by assuming a limited (1-2 ) transfer of energy through the magnetopause. An interesting and important aspect of the input power is the six order of magnitude difference between solar power of the solar irradiation and the solar wind power. The difference intuitively suggests that solar irradiation is the main driver for ionospheric and atmospheric processes. This is certainly the case for heating expansion and dayside ionization of the atmosphere. However, this difference is not the case for the outflow escape of matter. As already noted in Sect. 1, accelerated ionospheric O+ dominates the escaping mass flux from the Earth. As indicated by the title of this report, our focus is on the implications of a planetary magnetic field for solar forcing. Our

Planetographic Latitude

The first example is a study of the behavior of the zonal wind. By observing the motions of cloud features in images obtained with the Voyager television cameras, zonal wind speed has been derived as a function of latitude. The level of the visible clouds to which the wind speeds pertain is not known with certainty however, it is believed to be in the 500-700 mbar region. A series of alternating eastward and westward jets is observed. Estimates of the Rossby number are less than unity, which suggests that the zonal thermal wind relation, Eq. (9.2.29), should be valid. Application of this relation to the thermal structure for Jupiter, shown in Fig. 9.2.6, yields the thermal wind shear as a function of latitude, shown in Fig. 9.2.7. Also displayed is the wind speed, obtained from the cloud motions as a function of latitude. Comparison of the wind speed and the vertical shear indicates a tendency toward anticorrelation, which implies that the wind speed decreases with height. Similar...

Turbulence in the giant planet atmospheres

(where U is mean wind speed and the ft-parameter is defined below in Equation 5.46) when the disturbance is converted to planetary waves and the backwards energy cascade terminates. Thus, eddies have a maximum scale and this is likely to be related to the zonal structure scale (see Section 5.4.1). This property provides one link

Schatzmans braking mechanism

Where the indices A indicate that the wind speed v, the poloidal field strength H, and the density p are evaluated at r rA .In the simple model developed by Weber and Davis (1967), where the magnetic field in the thermally driven wind is approximately radial in the corotating frame of reference, the effective corotation prescription gives the following expression for the angular momentum loss rate

Mean zonal motions in the giant planet atmospheres

All the giant planets are found to have a very stable, zonal banded structure of cloud opacity and winds, with the winds blowing strongly in the east-west direction with very little mean meridional motion. The fact that these planets have such different solar flux and internal energy forcings suggests that the zonal structure derives from the nature of these planetary atmospheres themselves, together with their rapid rotation, rather than due to the method of forcing. The measured zonal wind speeds at the cloud tops for the four giant planets are compared in Figure 5.2, while Figure 5.3 shows the zonal wind speeds separately for each planet, with regions of cyclonic vorticity highlighted in gray. In addition, Figure 5.4 shows the wind speeds in terms of degrees longitude per rotation of the planet superimposed on the planets' mean visible appearance. It can be seen that there is very close north south symmetry in the wind structure for all four planets. For Jupiter, the wind...

Reefs as Environments Without Nutrient Limitations

Generally, the ambient nutrient concentrations surrounding tropical oceanic islands are extremely low, approximately that of oligotrophic open-ocean surface water. The center of the large Pacific oceanic gyres are known as oceanic deserts for their lack of resources (e.g., Ryther 1969). A variety of factors, however, do create variation in local nutrient concentrations around and between oceanic islands. For example, the shape of the island lagoon and the nature of the passages that connect it to the open ocean affect the flushing rate of water and associated nutrients in the lagoon (Charpy and Charpy-Roubaud 1990) similarly, wind speeds and their seasonality control the rate of flux into and out of the lagoon (Furnas et al. 1990) and control recirculation within the lagoon (Arx 1954 Atkinson, Smith, and Stroup 1981). The water surrounding some islands apparently increases in nutrient concentration as it approaches and passes around the island, a phenomenon known as the island mass...

Observed Atmospheres Of The Giant Planets

We shall see in Chapter 5 that the winds on the giant planets blow almost entirely in the zonal direction (i.e., east to west, or west to east), and the winds alternate in direction in association with the belts and zones. The zonal wind speed on Jupiter varies particularly rapidly with latitude and is puzzlingly strong at the equator, reaching speeds of 100 m s in the eastward direction. The equatorial region of Jupiter is thus super-rotating (i.e., rotates faster than the bulk of the planet), a state that is difficult to simulate with numerical models pointing to considerable underlying complexity (as we shall see in Chapter 5). Observations of ovals and other atmospheric features by early astronomers such as Jean-Dominique (a.k.a. Gian-Domenico) Cassini (1625-1712) had to be referred to a longitude system and as the equator rotates at a noticeably faster rate than the rest of the planet due to the high wind speeds there, two conventions arose. The System I frame referred to...

Cassini Approach Phase

Sun and the spacecraft travelling in the plane of the ecliptic, the view was of the southern polar region and the illuminated 'underside' of the ring system. As it closed in, Cassini took imagery for colour movies to monitor the temporal variation of the atmosphere and measure the wind speeds. Imagery also enabled the ephemerides of the known moons to be updated, and facilitated a search for hitherto undiscovered moonlets. There were no plans to try to image the recently discovered satellites out beyond Phoebe. The composition of the rings was to be investigated by imaging in the mid-infrared, and the distribution of the atomic hydrogen inside the magnetosphere was to be mapped by ultraviolet imaging. On 23 February Cassini took imagery of the 'F' ring. The data had to be magnified and contrast enhanced in order to display the 50-kilometre-wide ring, but several 'clumps' were readily apparent. best terrestrial telescopes. Later in the month, the spacecraft began to take movies to...

Second Flyby Of Titan

For two days on the way in to the Tb fly-by on 13 December 2004, Cassini shot a movie of cloud motions. The mid-latitude clouds that were absent for the Ta fly-by had returned. The fact that one of the mid-latitude clouds appeared to have been drawn out by the prevailing wind into a streak strengthened the possibility that it was associated with a surface feature.202 The fact that it was moving at only several metres per second suggested that it was at low altitude. However, H.G. Roe noted that if the cloud had formed in the wake of a mountain, it might 'stand' in the same manner as cloud banks stand offshore on Earth, in which case its motion would not provide a measure of the local wind speed.

The Climate System and Relevant Processes

The usual definition of climate is that it encompasses the slowly varying aspects of the atmosphere-hydrosphere-land surface system. In some sense, climate is the average condition of the weather over several years to tens of years (averaging times need to be carefully chosen), as exemplified by the parameters viz., temperature, wind velocity, relative humidity, cloudiness and the amount of precipitation. Modern climate definitions include higher order statistics beyond mean values, such as the magnitudes of day-to-day or year-to-year variations, standard deviations or measures of shapes of parameter distributions.

New Data Analysis Tools

Correlation with Data from Other Spacecraft or Ground Stations An analysis can always benefit from additional information from other sources. In particular, every analysis of plas-masphere data has to take into account the role of geomagnetic activity, for instance, expressed in terms of the Kp index deduced from ground observations. An alternative is to study the relationship between the plasmasphere and the solar wind parameters directly. An attempt in this direction has been made by Larsen et al. (2007), who have used a multiple regression analysis to relate the average plasmapause position derived from EUV image inversion to ACE solar wind parameters. This analysis shows that the time-delayed interplanetary magnetic field Bz, its clock angle 0, and the merging proxy 0 vB sin2 (0 2), where v and B denote solar wind speed and field magnitude, are the dominant controlling parameters. The time delays are found to be around 200 minutes. Although statistical in nature, and although the...

Thermal wind equation

To use the geostrophic equation to analyze flow in a planetary atmosphere, we need to know the three-dimensional pressure field. While this can be measured for the Earth's atmosphere, it is very difficult to derive from remote-sensing observations of the giant planets. However, remote-sensing observations can determine the three-dimensional temperature field and, if we know the wind speeds at a certain pressure level (e.g., by tracking discrete cloud features at the cloud tops), then the wind speeds at all other levels can be deduced from the thermal wind equation.

Changes in Jupiters Surface within Human History Storms

1,250 miles (2,000 km) north and then 1,250 miles (2,000 km) south of its average latitude. The Great Red Spot also moves in longitude, and over the last hundred years has completed about three circuits back and forth around the planet.The latest observations from Galileo showed that the interior of the Great Red Spot is rotating more slowly than its edges, and that its very center may even have an area of circulation in the opposite sense from the rest of the spot.Throughout most of the spot, winds cycle counterclockwise, and at its edges, take about six Earth days to make one complete lap around the spot. Though wind speed and size show that this is a huge storm, there are still no satisfactory theories about its cause and duration.

Other power sources

As on Earth, it may be possible to derive power from ambient sources other than sunlight. Wind power has been proposed for the Martian surface environment. Development models of a wind-powered rover for Venus were also built and tested in the Soviet Union during the 1980s (the KhM-VD and KhM-VD2, from VNIITransMash). The available power of the windstream relates to the air density and the cube of the windspeed (thus 8 times more power is available if the windspeed doubles). Exploitation of the mechanical power of wind for locomotion (via balloon, tumbleweed rover, etc.) appears more likely in the near term than for electrical-power generation. It may also be possible to exploit temperature changes (either diurnal changes on a lander, or the temperature change with depth in a deep atmosphere for a descent probe or balloon) to derive usable energy.

System requirements

For higher energy requirements there are two solutions. One option is to extract energy from the environment - providing a power source rather than an energy source. In principle, the energy provision of such a power source is infinite (just run the source for longer to acquire more energy). The practical examples here are solar power (usually by photovoltaic arrays) and possibly wind power for Martian surface systems.


The grain sizes determined here are considerably larger than those determined by overall light curve shape modeling 11 . Radiation pressure forces from main sequence stars can only eject grains of this size from the most massive O and possibly B0 stars 7,19 , However, by our flare duration technique we cannot rule out the presence of smaller grains in addition to the larger ones needed to model the flare duration. Some authors 20 have assumed that the grains within each dustball meteoroid may follow the same mass distribution law as meteoroids themselves. An interesting question is whether dustball meteoroids may fragment in space, with their grains being subsequently ejected from the planetary system by radiation pressure forces. While this must occasionally occur, a consideration of the solar wind energy flux suggests that hundreds to thousands of Leonid orbital passages would be needed for a typical Leonid to remove the volatile component by solar wind sputtering. This is supported

Aerodynamic Forces

The next question is, How can such a thin atmosphere produce aerodynamic effects on spacecraft that perturb their orbital motion (see also the discussion about drag forces on launchers in Chapter 5) The key to this is to realize that the aerodynamic force on an object is dependent not only on the air density but also on how fast the object is moving through the air. For example, we know that sufficient aerodynamic force can be exerted on a garden fence to knock it down in a winter storm, provided the wind speed is high enough. This force, known as dynamic pressure, actually depends on the square of the wind speed. If the wind speed doubles, the force on the fence increases by a factor of four (22), if it trebles the force is nine times as big (32), and so on. No wonder storm-force winds make short work of fences


The size of the magnetosphere is characterised as the distance from the centre of the planet to the upwind magnetopause. This distance is proportional to ,1 3 (n1 6v1 3), where is the magnitude of the magnetic dipole moment of the planet, v is the wind speed, and n is the number density (number per unit volume) of the charged particles in the solar wind (mainly electrons and protons). Though v does not vary much with the heliocentric distance, n diminishes as this

N swmvsw mf

Figure 10 shows the magnetopause stand-off distance rs for the moderate expected solar wind density (Wood et al. 2002 Lammer et al. 2003a Lundin et al. 2007, this issue) in the martian radii during the time period between 0.1-1 Gyr after the Sun arrived at the ZAMS for various values of magnetic moments in units of the present Earth's value (Me). The value of the solar wind velocity vsw for the young Sun is taken from Newkirk (1980). One should note that the minimum solar wind plasma densities inferred from observations by Wood et al. (2002) will move the magnetic barrier further away from the planet, resulting in better atmospheric protection. If early Mars had a magnetic moment similar to that of present Earth, rs 4.5 Gyr ago would have been -2.8 martian radii above the surface. An initial magnetic moment of -10 Me (Schubert and Spohn 1990) results in rs of 7 martian radii above the planetary surface. The lowest expected magnetic moment on Mars 4.5 Gyr ago of -0.1 Me (Schubert and...


It is important to note that not only the radiation intensity of the Sun has been changing during its lifetime (Lundin et al. 2007), but also the solar wind mass flux was higher during the active period of the young Sun (Newkirk Jr. 1980 Wood et al. 2002, 2005). For example, 3.9 Gyr ago, the solar wind density was higher by a factor of 16, and the solar wind velocity was approximately twice its current value (see Grie meier et al. 2004). Hubble Space Telescope high-resolution spectroscopic observations of the H Lyman-a feature of several nearby main-sequence K- and G-type stars carried out by Wood et al. (2002, 2005) have revealed neutral hydrogen absorption associated with the interaction between the stars' fully ionized coronal winds and the partially ionized local interstellar medium. They modeled the absorption features observed in the astrospheres of these stars and provided the first empirically-estimated coronal mass loss rates of main sequence stars with ages younger than that...

Galileo probe

The 340 kg Galileo entry probe entered the atmosphere of Jupiter on December 7, 1995 at a speed of 170,000 km hr-1 and a shallow entry angle as shown in Figure 7.41. The probe was aero-captured by Jupiter's atmosphere (experiencing a maximum deceleration of 230g), and once it had slowed sufficiently, its heat shield was jettisoned, a parachute deployed, and the probe then descended slowly down through the atmosphere recording information with several instruments on the way. Instruments included a particle nephelometer (Ragent et al., 1998), a mass-spectrometer (Niemann et al., 1998), a net flux radiometer (Sromovsky et al., 1998), and a host of thermometers and accelerometers to record vertical structure (Seiff et al., 1998). In addition to the in situ observations, the probe signal was also tracked from the orbiter and the Doppler-shifting of the signal used to deduce horizontal wind speeds down to depths of nearly 20 bar, while the strength of the signal was used to determine the...

NASAs Viking Project

Exo Microbiology Viking Experiment

A meteorology instrument that measured air temperature and wind speed and direction at the landing sites. These instruments returned the first extraterrestrial weather reports in the history of meteorology. seismometer on the Viking 1 lander did not function after touchdown, while the seismometer on the Viking 2 lander detected only one event that might have been of seismic origin. Nevertheless, the instrument still provided data on surface wind velocity at the Utopia Planitia site (supplementing the meteorology experiment) and also indicated that the Red Planet currently has a very low level of seismicity.

Saturns Deep Clouds

Starting with periapsis on 17 February 2005, Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer began a campaign in which it imaged Saturn at 5 microns to utilise the heat continuously leaking from the deep interior to illuminate the cloud structures in silhouette. Previously the deep clouds had been sought by imaging in sunlight, but the view had been obscured by the upper level hazes and clouds. At 5 microns it was possible to map both the day and night sides, and there was a mass of structure.245 As team member K.H. Baines put it, ''Unlike the hazy broad global bands of clouds regularly observed in the upper atmosphere, many of the deeper clouds appear to be isolated, localised features.'' There was a large variety of sizes and shapes. They also behaved differently, and were made of ammonium hydrosulphide or water rather than ammonia. Observations of these clouds offered a means of both measuring the wind speeds at this deeper level and making a three-dimensional chart of the...

Eolian features

Planets with atmospheres show the effects of eolian or wind processes. Wind transports material from one location to another and causes both deposition and erosion. The physics of fluid dynamics is applied to material being transported by the wind (Greeley and Iverson, 1985). Larger material is transported by traction, the rolling of material along the surface. Slightly smaller material can bounce along the surface, a process called saltation. Pebbles are sometimes moved by impact creep, where saltating grains impart momentum through their impact on the pebble. The smallest material is carried within the wind flow by suspension. Depending on the wind speed and thickness of a planet's atmosphere, suspension typically operates on particles < 60 m in diameter (dust), saltation efficiently moves material in the


Bramwell and Whitfield (1974) speculated that the extinction of Pteranodon could have been caused by climate change, and particularly in average wind speed towards the end of the Cretaceous. This would also have applied to Quetzalcoatlus, Titanopteryx, and Azhdarcho. An increase of only 5ms-1 would have been enough to make conditions impossible for the giant pterosaurs. Such a change could have been caused by global cooling, accompanied by the development of clear temperature differences between the equator and the poles. As Wellnhofer (1991, incorporated in Norman and Wellnhofer 2000) argued, longer periods of the year with higher wind speeds, during which the large pterosaurs were unable to fly, would have reduced their numbers to such an extent that they sank below the critical level at which survival was possible.


Escape model presented here predicts a higher outflow for lower outflow velocity (expression (1) and Fig. 9). Compare for instance with the mass-loaded plasma outflow in the near tail of a comet, reaching velocities of 10-50 km s. This velocity is an order of magnitude lower than the average solar wind velocity. With an early average solar wind velocity of 3000 km s (Wood et al. 2005), and a correspondingly higher dynamic pressure (goes as square of the velocity) the amplification factor becomes substantially higher for the Earthlike planets. One may easily conceive a ten times higher mass loss than that perceived from the model.

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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