World War Ebooks Catalog

Alive after the Fall Review

Read alive after the fall to learn how to survive any kind of disaster you may face in the future. You will learn how to live off the grid and how to survive the most horrible scenarios your country may face. What medicine you must have for the emergency? How to find food and how to cook it? Many questions will arise in your head when you face the disaster but this guide will leave you prepared for the worse. The author AlexanderCain explains in details what disease spread in the dark times and what is the must have medicine. Alexander Cain also describes how to secure your car engine against EMP attack, and he teaches you about the most crucial electrical devices. How to save those electronic devices from EMP? The book teaches you how to build faraday cage in less than twenty five minutes to protect electronics from the EMP attack. Alexander also explains methods to prolong the shelf life of your food and medicine. When you read the bonus report you will learn how to survive nuclear attack and chemical attack. In last chapter Alexander explains how to get food and how to cock it without using electricity or gas. Read more here...

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Early postWorld War II period

The principal architects of the evolutionary synthesis mentioned previously gained more and more influence in World War II and postwar times, and their ideas shaped the field of biological anthropology including paleoanthropology (Tattersall 2000a Foley 2001 Junker 2004 Hofifeld 2005b). Although the fossil record had steadily increased, it was still a challenge to reconstruct the raw outlines of human evolution from the tiny catalog of human skeletal remains. There was tremendous progress as the hominin status (at that time taxonomically

War and Thermonuclear

Although it is doubtful that thermonuclear war alone could wipe out humanity, one scenario for human-induced extinction is a massive thermonuclear exchange, perhaps aided and abetted by chemical and biological warfare at the same time. While the causes of such warfare could come from many sources, the twenty-first century and beyond will probably see a variety of smaller wars fought over food, land, and water. Unto themselves these wars certainly pose no threat to the entire species unless, of course, they escalate into a full-blown nuclear-chemical-biological exchange. Following the explosion of the first atomic bomb in 1945, and the first thermonuclear (or hydrogen) bomb in the early 1950s, the stockpile of such weapons has grown alarmingly. The National Research Council estimated that the five major nuclear powers (the United States, Russia, Britain, France, and China) possessed nearly 70,000 nuclear weapons in the mid-1980s. This number had diminished by the latter part of the...

World War II

This war was even larger and bloodier than World War I had been. It eventually included two large coalitions the Axis Powers (which included Germany, Italy, Japan, and a few smaller countries) and the Allied Powers (which included France, England, China, the United States, and many smaller countries). However, it began as two separate wars In both world wars, Germany fought against England, France, Russia, and the United States. Therefore, as far as the European portion of the war was concerned, World War II may be regarded as a continuation or second round of World War I. However, World War II also involved a major ideological clash, not present in the first war.

Death from the Robots

It is difficult to arrive at any scenario of human extinction (or any scenario of anything, for that matter) that has not already been featured in some Hollywood movie. So too with our next potential villain, artificially constructed machine intelligence. In the famous Terminator and Terminator 2 movies (and to some extent in The Matrix as well), the near-future world is run by malevolent robots that are trying to exterminate the human species, or at least enslave it. Such a scenario seemed highly likely to Ted Kaczynski, the infamous Unabomber, who in his manifesto published by The New York Times and The Washington Post, wrote, Let us postulate that the computer scientists succeed in developing intelligent machines that can do all things better than human beings can do them. If the machines are permitted to make all their own decisions . . . the fate of the human race would be at the mercy of the machines.

Threshold for a Globally Catastrophic Climate Perturbation

A drop of a few degrees Celsius in surface temperature over many months is sufficient to reduce crop yields dramatically (Harwell and Hutchinson, 1989 Covey et al., 1990 Toon et al., 1997). The energy threshold for a globally catastrophic impact is therefore determined by the explosive yield required to loft sufficient submicrometer dust into the stratosphere to lower the surface temperature by this amount. Models originally developed for nuclear winter (Turco et al., 1991) suggest that a global stratospheric dust layer with an optical depth more than 2 would depress land temperatures by as much as 10 C, and lead to the climatic effects associated with nuclear winter. In the most comprehensive discussions of these effects, Toon et al. (1994, 1997) find that major climate effects would almost certainly follow from an impact with a yield of 106 MT, and perhaps from one as much as an order of magnitude less. For a stony object striking at 20 km per second, one million megatons...

Was it a fair dinkum comet

Most contemporary scientists also reject the idea of a comet. 'Comets are fluffy in comparison with asteroids and burn up quickly in the atmosphere', Richard Stone writes in Discover magazine. 'For one to have produced an explosion as big as the one over Tunguska, it would have started out as a million-tonne object. The vast swath of gas and dust left by such an object on its way down might well have shut out the sun or altered the climate.' Zdenek Sekanina, an expert on comets at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, agrees 'The effect on life on Earth would have been horrendous. It would have been a global catastrophe, comparable to nuclear winter. The effects on mankind would have been so overwhelming that we could not discuss the topic, because we would not be here.' You and I are still discussing the topic therefore, the Tunguska fireball was not a comet. QED.

Seeking Intelligent Life

If life is common and it commonly leads to the evolution of intelligent creatures that have long, prosperous planetary tenures, then it is possible that enlightened aliens might be beaming signals off into space. A key factor in deciding whether SETI makes sense involves the lifetime of civilizations with radio technology. Does such a civilization last only centuries before nuclear war, starvation, or some other calamity causes its decline Or does it last forever In the most optimistic minds, Star Trek societies might populate the stars. But even if they do, it is a real question whether any of them would or could beam enormous amounts of radio power into space to potential audiences that are prevented by the vast interstellar distances from ever returning the message in a timely manner. There probably are other civilizations in the galaxy that have radio telescopes, but the vast numbers of stars and the vast distances involved are barriers that may always keep SETI more an...

Exploration of Star Systems

The preliminary answer to the opening question of this introduction, is yes. However, this yes has qualifications, as it is an affirmative answer to a possibility. If interstellar probes are sent into space it will likely be at least a half century or more from today. The duration for these missions will be measured in decades as well. Much can happen here on Earth in the mean time. Such stellar exploration can only happen if we manage to tackle a fair number of problems we face. These include, energy and resource depletion, global public health and pandemics, nuclear war, population pressures and the long term prospect of a global ecological collapse. This is a major qualifier, for stellar exploration depends upon a stable global situation lasting for at least another century. It further depends upon either some breakthroughs in our understanding of quantum field theory, or a future ability to construct large systems in space. In the first case this means that large amounts of...

Section Arguments that there is a strong genetic component in

A) The magnitude of 8 has changed very little in the eight decades since it was first observed. Eight decades ago, when 8 was first measured (from the tests given by the US Army in World War I), the average difference between the scores of American blacks and whites was about 17 points.

Evolution as Social Evil

The second decade of the twentieth century was a time of considerable social unrest and psychological unease. The appalling death, brutality, destruction, and devastation of World War I led many citizens, including many conservative Christians, to conclude that civilization itself had failed. Conservative Christians sought a solution in a return to biblical authority and in the literal interpretation of Scripture. Their views were further reinforced by Germany's having been the main source of both higher criticism, viewed as an attack on religion, and World War I militarism, viewed as an attack on civilization (Armstrong 2000 Marsden 1980).

Intelligence and the Bell Curve

There are several definitions of intelligence what you use when you don't know what to do guessing well about what fits together finding an appropriate level of organization finding an appropriate pattern from the available information. Although these statements certainly typify aspects of brain function that we recognize as intelligence, such definitions remain highly unsatisfactory. It is clear that intelligence is composed of an enormous array of components. Some of us have great math skills most do not. Franklin D. Roosevelt, the longest-serving American president and certainly one of our best leaders, was an indifferent student. (Oliver Wendell Holmes once remarked of him, A second-class intellect, but a first-class temperament ) His English contemporary and Second World War sta-blemate, Winston Churchill, was so indifferent a student that he never completed college and was packed off to the military by his despairing parents. Yet both rose to lead great countries in crisis...

The entry PAD a worked example

In view of their impending splash in the middle of Earth's largest ocean, and with the possibility always present that a malfunction could take them well away from the recovery ships and force them to abandon the CM in a hurry, the crew donned life vests, known as Mae Wests. The name derived from World War II allied servicemen who noted the excessively curvaceous effect an inflated life vest had on its wearer and likened it to the figure of a famous bawdy film star of the pre-war era.

Section Adoption of new languages

(a) In the late 1700s, Poland was divided up between Austria, Russia, and Prussia. Although the Polish state ceased to exist, the Polish people refused to abandon their language, and they were still using it when Poland regained its independence at the end of World War I, more than a century later.

Earth Time trends and events

Even evidence (of a purely geological nature) for a large-scale conflict such as the 1914-18 First World War will be hard to come by outside of the battlefields. In regions like Flanders on the French-Belgian border, where there was intense and prolonged fighting, there will be some 'debitage' remaining. Bones and even metal degrade on the geological scale, although concrete as used in the building of the Maginot defence line is more persistent. Military hardware or ships that end up on the seabed also persist quite well but can be difficult to find. The event associated with the 1939-45 Second World War that is most likely to be picked up is the dropping of the atomic bombs on Japan. Radioactive particles (isotopes of caesium and plutonium) from the nuclear test explosions carried out by the American military in the Nevada desert in the 1950s were carried through the atmosphere and around the world by the jet stream within days. Recently they have been recovered from soil samples...

Londons Diluvial or Pleistocene park

The discovery of large animal bones buried a few feet below the ground in central London came as quite a surprise when the foundations for some of the grand buildings around Trafalgar Square were dug out in the late nineteenth century. The same rich seam was uncovered with post Second World War redevelopment of some of the surrounding 'empire' buildings such as New Zealand House, Uganda House and the Royal Bank of Scotland. Identification of the bones revealed an extraordinary bestiary of elephant, rhino, hippo, giant deer, oxen, horse, hyaena and big cats. What were animals normally associated with Africa doing in central London

Vernadsky and Biogeochemistry

Vernadsky apparently had a profound influence on the subsequent development of biogeochemistry in the West through a curious connection his son George was a professor at Yale and a friend of G. E. Hutchinson, an influential force in the post-World War II development of ecology, biogeochemistry, and limnology. Hutchinson edited and introduced Vernadsky's first major publication in English, Problems of Biogeochemistry II (Vernadsky 1944) and also arranged publication of his paper in American Scientist in 1945 (Vernadsky 1945). In particular, there is strong resonance between Hutchinson's 1954 paper on the biochemistry of the terrestrial atmosphere, emphasizing biogeochemical interactions, and Vernadsky's concepts (Gri-nevald 1988). The biochemistry of the atmosphere indeed Hutchinson's terminology anticipates the most provocative metaphors of Lovelock's Gaia.

Section The Caliphate

Another group of Turks, the Ottomans, conquered much of Anatolia during the 1300s. In 1453, they conquered Constantinople, thereby putting an end to the Byzantine Empire. By then, the Ottomans had also conquered a large part of the Balkans. Within a century, they had conquered Syria and Egypt as well had secured control over the holy places in Arabia (including Mecca) and had conquered Baghdad. Thereafter, the Turkish sultans became, in effect, the successors of the caliphs. The Ottoman Empire lasted until World War II, making it the longest-lived of all Moslem dynasties.

Pulse Detonation Engines What is a pulse detonation engine

A pulse detonation engine (PDE) is a cyclical operation engine analogous to the World War II pulse jets. This engine fires cyclically resulting in an intermittent firing engine. The engine consists of an acoustically tuned pipe fed a detonatable mixture inside that, when ignited, sends the combustion products wave traveling down the pipe ahead of a detonation wave. After the products exit the tube, the tube is effectively scavenged, new fuel is then injected and a new mixture forms, sort of reloading the tube. The ignition process is then repeated, starting a new cycle. This periodic operation gives the PDE a characteristic cyclic rate and the characteristic sound that, in the V-1 case, gained it the nickname of buzz bomb''. A comparison of the pulse detonation rocket engine (PDRE) or pulse detonation engine (PDE) with today's standard rocket and turbojet cycles can show the potential of this propulsion system. A PDRE is a cylindrical tube with a defined length. The PDRE is an...

Living blimps Quality of the record

Palaeontologists have speculated that there might be whole sectors of extinct life that we know nothing about. What if there were a diverse class of floating animals that were constructed of extremely lightweight materials, and provided with great air bladders that filled with gases lighter than air These creatures might have been many metres long, perhaps as large as dirigible aircraft, sometimes called blimps during the Second World War. These blimp beasts could well have dominated the Earth, if they were so large, and yet they might have entirely escaped fossilization. Their bodily tissues might have been so lightweight that they rotted away when they died. Their gas bladders would clearly burst and disappear during decay. Living in the air, in any s case, means their carcasses might have generally fallen onto the g

Malcolm S Longair Moscow

The history of the late 1960s cannot be appreciated without some understanding of the historical background to astronomical research in the early years of the Soviet Union and the post-War period up to the death of Stalin. Before the October Revolution of 1917, Russian astronomy had enjoyed a considerable international reputation. Founded in 1839, the Pulkovo Observatory at St. Petersburg grew into a world-class organization under the successive directorships of F. G. V. Struve and his son Otto Struve. The Moscow University Observatory, later to become the Shternberg Astronomical Institute, was founded in 1830 and was primarily intended for teaching. Distinguished work on variable stars was carried out by its director Vitold K. Tseraskii and his wife Lidiya P. Tseraskaya in the latter years of the 19th century. At the outbreak of World War I, the Russian empire, which included observatories at Kazan, Tashkent, and Kharkov, was undoubtedly a major force in world astronomy. Matters...

Cables Drums and Seashells

Let us consider contact using radio astronomy. Radio astronomy on Earth is a by-product of the Second World War, when there were strong military pressures for the development of radar. Serious radio astronomy emerged only in the 1950s, major radio telescopes only in the 1960s. If we define an advanced civilization as one able to engage in long-distance radio communication using large radio telescopes, there has been an advanced civilization on our planet for only about ten years. Therefore, any civilization ten years less advanced than we cannot talk to us at all.

Creation Science and Henry M Morris

Henry M. Morris is widely considered the father of the twentieth-century movement known as creation science. Morris was trained as a hydraulic engineer and began his career as a creationist with the publication in 1946 of his first book, That You Might Believe, written while he was an instructor at Rice University during World War II. In graduate school, he revised the book, which was then issued as The Bible and Modern Science (1951). In these early efforts, Morris, a self-proclaimed biblical literalist, promoted a recent six-day (twenty-four hours per day) creation, and a literal, historical flood, but he additionally claimed that special creationism can be supported by the facts and theories of science. Although both of these books are still in print and continue to sell, the modern creation science movement crystallized in 1961 with the publication of Morris's book The Genesis Flood, written with the theologian John Whitcomb.

Entry probes communication basics

The frequencies used for space communication lie in bands coordinated by the ITU (the International Telecommunication Union, a branch of the United Nations). The designation of the wavebands generally derives from radar development in World War 2 in the UK and Germany (Table 10.1).

Seeing The Past In Present Events

John Tuzo Wilson was a Canadian geologist who graduated from the University of Toronto in 1930 with a degree in geophysical studies. He received his Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1936 and went to work for the Geological Survey of Canada. During World War II, he served with the Royal Canadian Engineers. When the war ended, he returned to the University of Toronto, where he became a professor of geophysics.

The Chuar window on life in the deep past

Barghoorn, as a specialist in fungae, had spent part of his Second World War service investigating fungal contamination of military equipment. Consequently, he knew a thing or two about fungae and was sufficiently impressed by Tyler's photos to realise that they had to publish some results quickly in case somebody else was working on similar material and beat them to it. Priority in publication counts in the scientific race as in athletics, there is not much credit in being second. Elso Barghoorn, 1915-84, American palaeobotanist of Finnish extraction who studied at Miami University, Ohio and Harvard (1941). Following military service in the Second World War, he taught at Amherst College and then became professor at Harvard.

Exposure from major accidents

Weapons production and transportation have resulted in several accidents, but the collective dose committed is small. The two most serious accidents in nuclear weapons production were at Kyshtym, in the former USSR, and at the Windscale plant at Sellafield (UK), both in 1957. The first accident caused a collective dose of 2,500 man Sv over the next 30 years. The Sellafield accident caused a total collective dose in Europe (including England) of about 2,000 man Sv.

Summary and Conclusions

The development of space defenses is an inherently hazardous undertaking. The existence of nuclear weapons and launch vehicles carries its own risk, since these might be used against targets on the Earth rather than in space. In addition, as pointed out by Sagan and Ostro (1994a, b) and Harris et al. (1994), the technology developed to deflect threatening asteroids could also be used to alter the course of a benign asteroid so that it would strike the Earth. The fact that such a suicidal act would require that a government be under the control of a madman does not make it impossible.

Yuri Nikolaevich Smirnov Unforgettable Yakov Zeldovich

There is a deep analogy between physical processes which take place inside nuclear bombs (especially thermonuclear bombs) and stars. It was soon realized by the designers of nuclear weapons. That is why the newcomers who just came to Sarov, the Russian nuclear center, were sometimes told, we research astrophysics here. There were good reasons for that.

Exposure from atmospheric nuclear testing

Until the Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and Under Water, signed in Moscow on August 5th 1963, almost all nuclear explosions (fissions and fusions) to test weapons were carried out in the atmosphere, mostly in the northern atmosphere, e.g., in the former Soviet Union at Semipalatinsk in Kazakhstan 456 tests were carried out between 1949 and 1989 http www. science e grants after the treaty almost all explosions have been conducted underground. The two time periods of most intense atmosphere tests were 1952-1958 and 1961-1962 (see Figure A.13). The total number of atmospheric tests was 543 and the total yield estimated is 440 megatons (189 megatons from fission) UNSCEAR, 2000 .

Impossible to stamp out

Chemical warfare might prove to be less effective than a form of biological warfare using the ants' natural enemies and parasites. For instance, it has been suggested that phorid flies might do the trick it is their curious custom to lay their eggs in the heads of fire ants, where they will develop and eventually kill their host. Such a method would certainly not eliminate the pest for when the ants sense the presence of these flies they make fewer sorties from the nest nevertheless, it could at least limit the extent of their invasion and enable other species of insects to regain a foothold in the affected territory. Before recruiting armies of flies, however, one would have to be sure that their parasitism targets only fire ants and not some other local species as well. Biological warfare must be waged with caution, so as to avoid introducing solutions that turn out to be worse than the problem.

Lenski experiment population density

Lenski's experiments, especially with the ingenious 'fossilization' technique, show the power of natural selection to wreak evolutionary change on a timescale that we can appreciate in a human lifetime, before our very eyes. But bacteria provide other impressive, if less clearly worked-out, examples. Many bacterial strains have evolved resistance to antibiotics in spectacularly short periods. After all, the first antibiotic, penicillin, was developed, heroically, by Florey and Chain as recently as the Second World War. New antibiotics have been coming out at frequent intervals since then, and bacteria have evolved resistance to just about every one of them. Nowadays, the most ominous example is MRSA (methycillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), which has succeeded in making many hospitals positively dangerous places to visit. Another menace is ' C. diff.' (Clostridium difficile). Here again, we have natural selection favouring strains that are resistant to antibiotics but the effect...

John D Rockefellers Chinese Medical School and Its Unruly Anatomist Davidson Black

Sinanthropus Skull

Davidson Black was hired by Peking Union Medical College in 1919 as professor of anatomy.18 A Canadian, Black had an M.D. from the University of Toronto, but after a short stint in World War I, he had spent time traveling to the laboratories of prominent physical anthropologists in the United States, England, France, Holland, and Germany in order to learn as much as possible about human evolution. He had found a mentor in Dr. (later Sir) Grafton Elliot Smith, eminent professor of anatomy at University College in London. As his letters indicate, Black was interested in the China job, mainly because he would be near sites that he suspected might contain fossils of human ancestors. It is almost certain that the officers of the Rockefeller Foundation who decided to hire young Davidson Black, M.D. for the position in anatomy at Beijing had no idea that his anatomical research would involve digging for fossil bones in an old, dusty stone quarry many miles and many hundreds of thousand of...

Nucleosynthesis in a hot big bang

Big Bang Nuclear Synthesis

All these papers assumed we live in an expanding, evolving universe (in von Weizacker's case one that is finite but large enough to include the most distant observed galaxies) but did not explicitly take account of the relativis-tic theory for the rate of expansion. Gamow (1946) took this important step. He remarked that in the early stages of an expanding universe the mass density would be large, and that would make the rate of expansion rapid 1 we see that the conditions necessary for rapid nuclear reactions were existing only for a very short time, so that it may be quite dangerous to speak about an equilibrium state of the kind people had considered earlier. Gamow (1946) also noted that the positive electric charges of atomic nuclei tend to slow their fusion by pushing the nuclei apart, while the free neutrons he had mentioned earlier (Gamow 1942), which have no electric charge, react rapidly with protons and heavier atomic nuclei. That is wanted for a rapid build-up of the...

Martin Harwit An attempt at detecting the cosmic background radiation in the early s

Because I had earned an MA in Physics at Michigan by this time, the Army assigned me to the Chemical Corps at the Army Chemical Center in Edgewood, Maryland. This is where I began my real scientific training. Most of the civil servants in the Corps were chemical engineers and knew little about physics. But now, ten years after the end of World War II, the government was asking them to work on radioactive fallout, neutron doses from nuclear bomb bursts, and similar problems. I found that with a few visits to the base library, I could usually figure out what needed to be done, and although I was just an army private, I was given a lot of responsibility. Nevertheless, my civil service supervisor would send me to places like MIT or Woods Hole to verify with known experts that my calculations had been correct, and I enjoyed the opportunities offered by those visits.

The Sudbury Igneous Complex SIC

Interbedded argillitic limestone and dolostone. Disseminated and massive pyrite, sphalerite, galena, markasite, and pyrrhotite occur in these rocks and have been the subject of mining efforts, without much success, before and after World War 2 (Rousell 1984b). Figure 9 illustrates the current interpretation of the various lithologies in terms of an impact model (after Grieve et al. 1991), whereby crater floor lithologies, impact melt body, and suevitic fall-back breccia are distinguished.

The launch escape system

Apollo Escape Tower

October 1957, von Braun's Juno I rocket (a Redstone with solid-fuelled upper stages) countered for America by placing the more scientifically useful Explorer I into high orbit. However, rockets were inextricably tied up with the nuclear weapons they were designed to carry, and since, by now, America could build lightweight nuclear devices, its military rockets tended to be lower powered and less useful as lifting vehicles for spacecraft. Soviet nuclear weapons, on the other hand, were large, heavy affairs, and therefore their rockets had to be relatively powerful, giving them greater capability as space vehicles. Realising this shortcoming, von Braun's team first added solid-fuelled rockets to the top of their Jupiter missile, which was essentially a scaled-up Redstone, to make the Juno II space launcher, then moved onto the development of a heavy-lift booster specifically for space use. Initially designated the Super Jupiter, this booster would cluster first-stage engines and tanks...

John R Shakeshaft Early CMBR observations at the Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory

Toward the end of that decade I began work, with graduate student Ivan Pauliny-Toth, on a survey of the background radiation at 404 MHz (A 74 cm). This was intended as part of a study over a range of frequencies to determine the spectrum of the galactic radiation as a function of direction, which could provide information on the dependence of cosmic ray electron density and interstellar magnetic fields on position within the Galaxy. It was therefore important, if brightness temperatures at different frequencies were to be compared, for these temperatures to be absolute values rather than merely relative values in different directions. We used an 8-m diameter dish on an alt-azimuth mount (it was in fact a German radar dish liberated after World War II by Martin Ryle, and one of the two dishes that Graham Smith used as an interferometer to determine accurate positions of the sources Cygnus A and Cas A, enabling their optical identifications by Walter Baade and Rudolph Minkowski), an...

Peking Man Under Siege

Helmut Terra

View of the excavation at Locality 1, looking east, June 15, 1937. The vertical opening of Pigeon Hall Cave can be seen at the upper left. This photograph was taken on serial field day 165, approximately a month before excavation was halted by the onset of the Sino-Japanese War and subsequently by World War II. The stratum excavated here was Level 28, Layer 10. In the upper left of the excavated area (Square K, 2), two fossil teeth of a macaque monkey were discovered. Immediately below this level (Square H, 4, Level 29) the last Homo erectus skull (Skull XIII) was discovered.

The Universe Was Alive

Vadim was born on 23 November 1935 in Moscow. He was short and skinny, but impetuous. When his parents moved, he had to change school and meet new pupils. When on the first day the strongest pupil stole his breakfast, the obviously weaker Vadim immediately fought for it. The other pupils respected him for this. It was one of his main characteristics, coincidently incorporated into his surname - 'the wolf. He later fought for his thoughts and beliefs, even against much stronger opponents. His father Nikolay was an aeronautical engineer and this mother Olga worked in an aircraft factory, and he inherited from them his love of aircraft and the sky. Their house was near Tushino airport, so from his backyard he could watch a variety of different types of aircraft take off and land, and during parachutist displays the sky above would fill with the coloured parachute canopies. Many pilots and engineers employed at the airport lived in the neighbourhood. From time to time, his uncle, Pyotr...

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Koala Animation

After the end of the Second World War, the birth of global tourism catapulted the koala into the international consciousness, and its charisma quickly took hold. As more and more people visited Australia, and koalas began to travel overseas to zoos in the United Kingdom and the United States, its popularity soared, particularly in North America and Asia. It seemed that everyone wanted to shake the little Australian's paw international stars from the world of entertainment, Jackie Chan and Janet Jackson, to name only two royalty, including HM Queen Elizabeth II, Prince Harry and TIH Crown Prince Naruhito and Crown Princess Masako of Japan and political heavyweights such as Mikhail Gorbachev and Bill Clinton, Nelson Mandela and Pope John Paul II, all have been photographed with Australian koalas.

Electrostatic Tethers

The explosion of an atomic bomb at high altitude could create an artificial and even more dangerous radiation belt. The highly energetic particles ejected by such a nuclear explosion would threaten satellites that otherwise orbit in low-radiation, low Earth orbits. Such a weapon could thus be used to destroy military observation and communication satellites. In the process it would also damage other satellites, nonmilitary and those of neutral countries, in orbits affected by the artificially created radiation. Experiments performed in the 1960s with nuclear bombs detonated in space showed that the lethal radiation belts can persist for many years (the testing of nuclear weapons in space has since been prohibited by the United Nations Outer Space Treaty of 1967).

The Scientific Fate of Homo erectus The Muddle in the Middle

By 1946 the world had realized that the famed Peking Man fossils had been lost during World War II. Their scientific memory was kept alive by the comprehensive publications of Weidenreich. But as masterful as these works were, Weidenreich's monographs and papers became much like a requiem to the lost fossils. Not only were the originals no longer available for study and comparison by other scientists but there was no hope of excavating again at Longgushan to obtain new fossils. While Weidenreich finished the last of his publications in New York, civil war raged on in China between the Nationalists and the Communists. Eventually the Communists, under Mao Tse-tung, would prevail, and in October 1949 the People's Republic of China was proclaimed. By then Weidenreich, who had harbored hopes of going back to China to resume the work at Longgushan, had died.

Why Were the Japanese Interested in Peking Man and Did They Find the Fossils

Kotondo Hasebe appears from his publications to have been primarily an ethnologist, specializing in Micronesia. He wrote papers on customs of the Marshall Islands in 191539 and on body ornamentation, especially tattooing, in various Micronesian cultures between 1917 and 1943. All of these papers were published in one journal, the Journal of the Anthropological Society of Tokyo. With his background, why Hasebe doggedly pursued Peking Man from 1937 to 1943 is mysterious. Perhaps it was a wartime duty assigned to him, or perhaps it was an abiding personal interest and he was able to gain the ears of influential persons in Tokyo to assist him. Perhaps he was acting on behalf of a powerful patron or patrons in Japan, close to the emperor, who had an interest in the Peking Man fossils. Whatever the source of his apparent interest in the fossils of Peking Man, it is highly unlikely that Kotondo Hasebe would have possessed the expertise for as formidable a task as excavating Longgushan....

Has the Earth Been Visited

What about possible counterarguments For example, it might be argued that we are the object of special attention - we have just developed all sorts of signs of civilization and high intelligence like nuclear weapons, and maybe, therefore, we are of particular interest to interstellar anthropologists. Perhaps. But we have only To the best of my knowledge, there are no such legends and no such artifacts. All the ancient artifacts put forward, for example, by Erik von Danniken in his book Chariots of the Gods have a variety of plausible, alternative explanations. Representations of beings with large, elongated heads, alleged to resemble space helmets, could equally well be inelegant artistic renditions, depictions of ceremonial head masks or expressions of rampant hydrocephalia. In fact, the expectation that extraterrestrial astronauts would look precisely like American or Soviet astronauts, down to their space suits and eyeballs, is probably less credible than the idea of a visitation...

Arthur Holmes And The Concept Of Convection

Holmes's career as a geologist started soon after his graduation from Imperial College of Science in London in 1910. To help pay his college expenses, he went to work as a prospecting geologist in the country of Mozambique. Unfortunately, he also wound up catching malaria. He returned to England in 1913 just when World War I was starting. As luck would have it, he was too sick to go into the army and fight. Instead, he returned to Imperial College to work as a lab technician and get his Ph.D.

Alfred Wegener Takes On The World

By the time he returned to Germany in 1913, Wegener was looked upon as a world authority on polar climates and glaciers. Just as he returned to work on his continental drift theory, however, World War I broke out. Wegener was drafted into the German army, where he served as a lieutenant and was wounded in

Koreas Hailstorms Of Hexapods

The nations of the world were bloodied and exhausted at the end of the Second World War, and neither the capitalists nor the communists were particularly anxious to start another shooting war. Although tensions ran high, an uneasy stalemate developed as the spoils of the beaten Axis powers were divided among the victors. In Germany, this meant splitting a nation into east and west portions. In Korea, the 38th Parallel separated the north and the south. The 406 Medical General Laboratory of the U.S. Army's Far East Medical Section became the linchpin for research and development of insect vectors.2 Spawned in a warehouse near the Agsugi Air Base in Yokohama in 1946, Unit 406 was originally tasked with providing health services to U.S. soldiers and fostering public health among civilians. But this seemingly benign, even laudable, purpose underwent mission creep. The Dr. Jekyll to Mr. Hyde transmogrification might have been predictable, given that the unit was the brainchild of Brigadier...

Historical Overview of Paleoanthropological Research

This chapter provides a comprehensive scientific historical overview on paleoanthropology as a multifaceted biological discipline. A terse compendium on pre-Darwinian theories of evolution is followed by a historical report of the paradigmatic change by Darwin's perspective on life processes from a teleological to a teleonomic view. Focusing on the fossil discoveries in Europe and later on in Asia and Africa and the different methodological approaches, it becomes obvious that as opposed to other biological disciplines, paleoanthropology remained until post-World War II first and foremost a narrative discipline, apart from the mainstream of biological thinking. Paleoanthropology kept this iridescent image'' in the public opinion until now, wrongly, as is proven. It is shown that since Washburn brought up an innovative conceptual outline on physical anthropology in 1951, there arose a methodological change in the understanding of human evolution as a self-organizing process focusing on...

Expert In Space Rendezvous

Vladimir Shatalov

Shatalov was born on 8 December 1927 in Petropavlovsk in northern Kazakhstan. When he was two years of age his family moved to Leningrad (now St Petersburg), and there during the Second World War he served in the same brigade as his father Aleksandar, who held the Gold Star of Hero of the Soviet Union, and participated in the legendary defence of that city. In 1945 Volodya completed a special school in Voronezh for future military pilots, and 4 years later graduated from the famous Kachinsko Higher Air Force School. In September 1949 he was flying as a pilot-instructor. He married Muza Andreyevna Yonova, an agricultural engineer, and in 1952 she gave birth to their first child son Igor. On attaining the best scores at the prestigious Red Banner Air Force Academy, Shatalov became a pilot-engineer in 1956. After a period serving as a deputy squadron commander he gained his own squadron. In 1958 their second child, daughter Yelena, was born.

Interesting Things Attract Me

Khrunov Yeliseyev

Aleksey was born on 13 July 1934 in the small town of Zhizdra - near Kaluga, which is famous for Konstantin Tsiolkovskiy. His father, Stanislav Kuraytis was of Estonian origin, and worked in the laboratory of a shoe factory. Before Aleksey was one year old, his father was accused of being an enemy of the Soviet Union and was sentenced to five years in prison but stayed incarcerated for almost a quarter of his life.5 After her husband's imprisonment Aleksey's mother, Valentina Ivanovna, remarried. She worked as a chemist for the Soviet Academy of Sciences, and later gained a PhD degree. When the Second World War began they were in Moscow, and young Aleksey joined his childhood friends in collecting scattered bomb parts from German aircraft. When his mother was transferred to a factory to Siberia, Aleksey was sent to stay with his grandparents in Kazakhstan, where he gained his first schooling. He moved back to Moscow in 1943 when his mother returned to give birth to her second son. In...

Between The Sea And

The Second World War had a deep impact on his life. He was 13 years old when it began for the USSR. He recalled how the ships of the Black Sea Fleet put up a heavy barrage against German bombers, illuminating the dark sky with shell bursts and the tracers of machine-gun bullets. But bombs still fell onto the city, destroying buildings and killing many people. In autumn 1941, after 73 days of defending the city, the soldiers of the Red Army and the sailors of the Black Sea Fleet were forced to abandon their positions and evacuate. In the city, only the partisan cells remained to continue to offer resistance. Zhora, who had just finished his sixth grade at high school No. 99, remembered for the rest of his life the day that the invaders entered the town in which he had been born. From behind the corner of one building he saw one young saboteur make a bomb attack on a column of tanks. He wanted so much to participate in the resistance, and soon he was in action. In his first act of...

Would Like So Much To Explore

Gallo Matese Perrino

Viktor was born on 19 June 1933 in Aktyubinsk, a city in northern Kazakhstan not far from the border with Russia. His father, Ivan Panteleyevich, was a director of the local bakery, but at the time of Viktor's birth was doing regular national military service in the army. After that, he was appointed to head one of the departments of the State Security Service. Viktor's mother, Mariya Sergeyevna, described her first child as follows Viktor is the replica of his father in appearance and in character -especially when he grew up to match his father's stature. Above all, Viktor liked sincerity and honesty.'' When Viktor was four years of age the family moved to the small town of Alga, and there, just before the Second World War, they had their second child daughter Galina. Although Viktor was different from the other kids of his age, he spent his childhood in the same way as everyone in his neighbourhood. Every day during the hot summers he would go with his friends to the Ilek River to...

Boris Viktorovich Raushenbakh

As a result of the loss of DOS-3, Raushenbakh was dismissed from his post in charge of the development of systems for the guidance and orientation of vehicles in space, and soon thereafter left the TsKBEM to become a professor at Moscow's Physics and Technical Institute. This was a natural move, because while working at the TsKBEM he had been a part-time lecturer there. Raushenbakh was one of the most imposing senior personnel at the TsKBEM. In addition to being a theoretician and designer of one of the most complex aspects of rocketry (guidance systems) he was also an academician and a distinguished philosopher and student of religion. He had a friendly relationship with Korolev that started before the Second World War. In view of his German roots, he was committed to a concentration camp, as indeed was Korolev for a short period. After Stalin's death in 1953 Raushenbakh joined the Central Scientific Research Institute (TsNIIMash) created by Mstislav Keldysh. In 1955 he moved to...

Image Not Available

Also a veteran of World War II, Pflug served in the German navy on the battleship Tirpitz. Pflug was wounded during a short post-Navy career as an infantryman. He showed me both snapshots of the Tirpitz and the scars where a Russian bullet had entered near his wrist, passed through his forearm, and exited near his elbow. Only a flesh wound.

Radiocarbon Dating And Quaternary Extinctions

Radiocarbon dating assumes that the ratio of I4C to I2C in the atmosphere has remained constant over time. There have been fluctuations, however. One such fluctuation resulted from the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum during the Industrial Revolution. This released large amounts of I2C (nonradioactive carbon) into the atmosphere, reducing the I4C I2C ratio. A much stronger shift in the opposite direction began with the testing of nuclear weapons by 1963, nuclear tests had increased the atmospheric levels of I4C by over 90 percent. In both cases, the balance of nonradioactive carbon to I4C in the atmosphere was thrown off, impairing the accuracy of radiocarbon dating for specimens originating from the past two centuries. Trees that began growing in the mid-nineteenth century, or that predated but lived through the atomic age, are, according to radiocarbon dating, too old by 2 to 3 percent. With the elimination of atmospheric tests the production of I4C is returning...

Annus Mirabilis at Olduvai

Immediately after the A. boisei cranium was found, they brought it down to Johannesburg from Nairobi, the Dear Boy sitting on Mary's lap throughout the flight. Thus, it came about that Dart and I were the first two people to see and touch the fine specimen. Incidentally, OH 5 was the first australopithecine to be found away from South Africa, save for Kohl-Larsen's maxilla with two premolars from Eyassi not far from Olduvai in Tanzania. The Eyassi remains had been found shortly before the outbreak of the Second World War, and the news did not become generally available until after the war.

The Venus Detective Story

At the 1968 Tokyo meeting of COSPAR, the Committee on Space Research of the International Council of Scientific Unions, I proposed that the Venera 4 spacecraft had ceased operating some fifteen miles above the surface. My colleague, Professor A. D. Kuzmin, of the Lebedev Physical Institute, in Moscow, argued that it had landed on the surface. When I noted that the radio and radar data did not put the surface at the altitude deduced for the Venera 4 touchdown, Dr. Kuzmin proposed that Venera 4 had landed atop a high mountain. I argued that ground-based radar studies of Venus had shown mountains a mile high, at most, and that it was exceptionally unlikely Venera 4 would land on the only fifteen-mile-high mountain on Venus, even if such a mountain were possible. Professor Kuzmin replied by asking me what I thought was the probability that the first German bomb to fall on Leningrad in World War II would kill the only

Preventing Back Contamination

The technology and procedures for hazardous-material containment have been used on Earth in the development of highly toxic chemical- and biological-warfare agents and in conducting research involving highly infectious diseases. A critical question for any quarantine system is whether the containment measures are adequate to hold known or suspected pathogens while experimentation is in progress. Since the characteristics of potential alien organisms are not presently known, scientists must assume that the hazard such (hypothetical) microorganisms could represent is at least equal to that of terrestrial Class IV pathogens. (A terrestrial Class IV pathogen is an organism that is capable of being spread

John Faulkner The day Fred Hoyle thought he had disproved the big bang theory

The brief story is that until the end of World War II, astronomers thought that stars contained either very little, or no more than 35 or so hydrogen content (X) by mass. In 1946, Fred Hoyle swung the hydrogen pendulum over to 99 or more. This was before the steady state theory was a glimmer in its originators' eyes.

Looking back in time Searching for the most distant galaxies

Esther Hu was born and raised in New York City. She is a second generation Chinese-American whose parents came to the US as students at the end of the Second World War. Like her sister Evelyn, Esther decided to be a scientist before attending college. Esther was educated in physics at MIT and earned her PhD in astrophysics at Princeton. She then became a research associate with the X-ray group at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and then a postdoctoral fellow at the Space Telescope Science Institute. She is now a professor of astronomy at the Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawaii in Honolulu. In the course of her career, Esther has studied successively more distant objects across the Universe using more and more sensitive telescopes and instruments. Despite her friendly and easy-going nature, Esther is as competitive as they come she presently holds the record for distant object detection. Esther enjoys reading, classical music, and ''living in a place as beautiful as...

Slot Machines And Velvet Stamps

The refugee was named Salvador Luria. He had trained as a doctor in Turin, but when he discovered viruses and bacteria he abandoned his medical career for research. During World War II he fled Italy for Paris, where he joined the scientists at the Pasteur Institute studying E. coli and its viruses. As the Germans closed in on Paris, Luria fled again, this time to New York. In the United States he met his hero, Max Delbr ck, and the two began to work together. The scientists explored the life cycles of viruses as the viruses slipped in and out of E. coli. They collaborated with scientists working with the newly invented electron microscope to spy on the creatures as they invaded their hosts. And for several years, Luria and Delbr ck puzzled over how E. coli recovers from the plagues visited on it by scientists.

Harry Hess Uncovers A Deepsea Mystery

Even though sonar had been available for more than 20 years, it was not really put to many scientific uses until World War II, when a naval officer named Harry Hess turned an antisubmarine weapon into an important research tool. In the process, he would not only unlock the mystery of what the seafloor looked like, but give the theory of continental drift a whole new look. Harry Hammond Hess was born in New York City in 1906 and graduated from Yale University with a degree in geology in 1927. After working as an exploration geologist for several years, he entered Princeton University where he received his Ph.D. in 1932. In 1934, he joined the faculty of Princeton, but his teaching career was interrupted in 1941 when he was called into active duty in World War II. Hess was a lieutenant in the naval reserve and eventually he was put in command of a ship called the USS Cape Johnson.

Image Receptor Film and screens

By 1913 the high cost and other problems previously stated regarding the plates led to a search for a replacement film base. Because the finest glass specifically manufactured for x-ray exposure was produced in Belgium, World War I forced many nations, including the United States, to search for another substrate for the photographic emulsion. Cellulose nitrate was one of the first to be marketed with an emulsion coated on a single side. Because cellulose nitrate was flammable, it was soon replaced with cellulose acetate and today with polyester. Glass plates were still available at least until the mid-1980s for special applications (see Chapter 7, Figure 7.26). The photosensitive crystals in the emulsion were considered ultra-fine grained and the resulting images could be magnified many times.

Waking The Slumbering Giants

With 3 million lice-ridden Russian corpses and another 27 million people afflicted by typhus after the First World War, the Soviets could not have missed the potential of entomological warfare. In 1928, the Revolutionary Military Council initiated the weaponization of typhus. A top-secret institute was founded in the town of Suzdal under the control of OGPU, the forerunner of the KGB.1 In light of the risks associated with studying human diseases, the facility was transferred to a more isolated site in 1936. In a move reminiscent of the Japanese occupation of Pingfan, the residents of Vozrozhdeniya Island in the Aral Sea were given six hours to evacuate their homes, and the Soviet biological warfare program set up shop. Typhus might have catalyzed the Soviet program, but interest in other pathogens was formalized in a project code named Golden Triangle, an allusion to its three elements plague, cholera, and anthrax. In the early years of the Second World War, both chemical and...

Institute for Historical Review

Since the 1984 fire-bombing that destroyed its office, IHR is understandably cautious about revealing its location to outsiders. Situated in an industrial area of Irvine, California, the office has no sign and its glass door, entirely covered with one-way mirror coating, is dead-bolted at all times one must be identified and admitted by the secretary working in a small office in front. Inside, there are several offices for the various staff members and a voluminous library. Not surprisingly, World War II and the Holocaust are the prime foci of its resources. In addition, IHR has a warehouse filled with back issues of JHR, pamphlets, and other promotional materials, as well as books and videotapes, all part of a catalogue business that, together with subscriptions, accounts for about 80 percent of revenues, according to Weber. The other 20 percent comes from tax-free donations (IHR is a registered nonprofit organization). Whatever funds the institute was receiving through Carto dried...

Major Sequence Of Propulsion Cycles

With the greater mass flow and reduced exhaust velocity the propulsion efficiency is increased. (7) There is a seventh category spanning the above categories. In fact, the engines discussed in the above are all continuously running engines. In World War II the V-1 flying bomb was powered by a pulsejet, or pulse detonation engine (PDE). This engine is an intermittently firing engine, consisting of an acoustically tuned pipe fed an explosive mixture inside that, when ignited, sends the combustion products wave traveling down the pipe. After the products exit the tube, the tube is effectively scavenged, new fuel is then injected and a new mixture forms, sort of reloading the tube. The ignition process is then repeated, starting a new cycle. This periodic operation gives the PDE a characteristic cyclic rate and the characteristic sound that, in the V-1's case gained it the nickname of ''buzz bomb''. Three PDE versions of the continuous operation engines are included in the...

Malcolm S Longair Cambridge cosmology in the s

The facts of the controversy and its resolution are now well known and will not be repeated here. What has been less appreciated are the very different scientific agendas which Ryle and Hoyle pursued. Both were larger than life personalities who had honed their research skills under periods of extremely high pressure during World War II. Hoyle was a brilliant astrophysicist whose extensive imagination led to some of his most remarkable achievements for example, the prediction of the triple-a resonance, as well as to the controversies which dogged his career. Hoyle's biography is the story of a disadvantaged Yorkshire schoolboy with a very strong independent streak from the very beginning, who, by sheer ability and hard work, attained the premier position in British academic astronomy, the Plumian Professorship of Astronomy at the University of Cambridge.

Timeline One Hundred Years of an Enigma

Nothing is heard of the explosion until Leonid Kulik, a Russian scientist, is assigned the task of locating and examining meteorites fallen in inhabited regions of Russia before and after the First World War. During his expedition to Siberia, Kulik learns of a meteorite that had fallen near the Stony Tunguska River. The expedition ended without him visiting the explosion site. 1939 Kulik's fourth expedition to Tunguska. The last expedition before the start of the Second World War. 1958 30 June. The Soviet Union releases a commemorative 40-kopeck stamp featuring a portrait of Kulik, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Tunguska event. The fifth expedition, the first after the Second World War, led by Kirill P. Florenskiy. The Interdisciplinary Independent Tunguska Expedition (IITE, known as KSE in Russian) is formed

The Ancient and Legendary Gods of

To assist me in understanding the source of his knowledge, he thought I would like to learn a little of his personal history - which explains a good bit of the eighty-five pages. As a young man in Ottawa, near the outbreak of World War II, my correspondent chanced to come upon a recruiting poster for the American armed services, the one showing a goateed old codger pointing his index finger at your belly button and saying, Uncle Sam Wants You. He was so struck by the kindly visage of gentle Uncle Sam that he determined to make his acquaintance immediately. My informant boarded a bus to California, apparently the most plausible habitation for Uncle Sam. Alighting at the depot, he inquired where Uncle Sam could be found. After some confusion about surnames, my informant was greeted by unpleasant stares. After several days of earnest inquiry, no one in California could explain to him the whereabouts of Uncle Sam.

Section Decolonization

A striking feature of the 20th century was the liberation of almost all of the colonies that European countries had previously acquired in Asia and Africa. In general, the European countries were reluctant to relinquish their colonies, and it was not until after World War II that they did so. There were several reasons why they then lost their colonies so quickly. 2) The European powers had been weakened by World War II, and their populations were war-weary. Italy relinquished control of Libya at the end of World War II. The Netherlands attempted to reestablish control of Indonesia at the end of World War II. However the Indonesians rebelled, and after three years of France attempted to reestablish control of Indo-China (Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia) at the close of World War II. A war of independence ensued, and the French withdrew in 1954.

Section Political and social changes within Europe

The rapid changes that occurred throughout the century led to a great deal of social and political turmoil, including a fair number of violent rebellions and revolutions. However, in the period 1815-1914 (i.e., from the final defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo until the outbreak of World War I) there were relatively few wars between European countries. In comparison, the interval 1600-1815 had been much bloodier, and the 20th century turned out to be worse still.

Alls Lousy On The Eastern Front

During World War I, the European continent provided history's largest experiment in entomological warfare tactics. For the first time, scientific understanding of insect-borne diseases allowed these agents to be exploited as passive weapons, demonstrating that the best offense could be a good defense. Rather than forcing the enemy into infested habitats, science provided the means for military leaders to protect their own forces from the ravages of disease-carrying insects that were part and parcel of war. The advantage of metal armor had been known for centuries, but biological armor now transformed the battlefield. As the First World War was winding down on the Eastern Front, lice and their microbes were just getting started. The war had been hard on Russia, with famine weakening the nation and refugees spreading lice throughout the countryside. And since the overthrow of the tsar in 1917, essential services had utterly disintegrated. Nearly six times more Russians would die of...

An Imaginary Menagerie

According to western analysts, the report was simply political tit-for-tat. The communists were getting even for the Americans' having shielded Ishii and his ilk from war-crimes prosecution. Such propaganda had even been worked into putatively scientific outlets, such as the Chinese Medical Journal. In an issue of the journal published at the same time as the commission's report, Chen Wen-Kuei reviewed the outbreaks of insect-borne diseases during the Second World War and concluded with a political accusation The fiercest political battle concerning the charges of biological warfare was waged over the confessions of the downed airmen. To get a flavor of the acrimony, consider the stinging refutation given by the U.S. representative to the UN The so-called 'germ warfare' confessions were not simply a sudden bright idea on the part of the Communists, but were an integral part of a tremendous and calculated campaign of lies.5 With the diplomatic gloves off, the West started landing some...

Prologue A Vein Is a River

By World War II, scientists had discovered that drugs effective against syphilis could also eradicate trypanosomes from the body. They were crude poisons, but they worked well enough to make the parasites sink back down to low levels if doctors carefully screened places thick with tsetse flies and treated the sick. There would always be sleeping sickness, but it would be an exception, not the rule. Campaigns against sleeping sickness during the 1950s and 1960s were so effective that scientists talked of eliminating the disease in a matter of years.

IGRF Main Field Poles

After World War II, a renewed spirit of international cooperation in geophysics brought about a rapid growth of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA pronounced eye-yah-gah). As part of a special IAGA working group, scientists from the principal navigation nations periodically analyze the collected global geomagnetic field records to determine an International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). This is a model of the Earth's main field that can be represented by a short table of values

The Meaning of Respiration

Both carbon and hydrogen are extracted from the organic fuels present in food, such as glucose, so Lavoisier was correct in saying that the respiratory fuels are replenished by food. Sadly, he never got much further. Lavoisier lost his head to the guillotine in the French Revolution four years later. In his book, Crucibles, Bernard Jaffe assigns the 'judgement of posterity' to this deed 'Until it is realized that the gravest crime of the French Revolution was not the execution of the King, but of Lavoisier, there is no right measure of values for Lavoisier was one of the three or four greatest men France has produced.' A century after the Revolution, in the 1890s, a public statue of Lavoisier was unveiled. It later transpired that the sculptor had used the face, not of Lavoisier, but of Condorcet, the Secretary of the Academy during Lavoisier's last years. The French pragmatically decided that 'all men in wigs look alike anyway', and the statue remained until it was melted down during...

Touch Of Gray

Bill Joy has worked all his life to create better software and microprocessors, believing that his work was helping to create a wonderful future for all of humanity. Only recently has it occurred to him that he may have been helping to build the tools of human extinction. He points out that unlike twentieth-century weapons of mass destruction, which generally require rare materials, highly specialized training, or large institutions to construct, the new GNR weapons of mass destruction might soon be easily created by any individual with a little bit of technical knowledge. The march of new technology is moving in a direction that may empower individuals to do massive harm.

Hazard Analysis

At the opposite, high-yield extreme, a mass-extinction event would probably kill almost the entire world population, but these impacts are so infrequent that the annual fatality rate is only a few hundred (the world's present population of 5 billion people killed every 10-100 million years). We are relatively certain that no asteroid large enough (diameter > 5 km) to cause a disaster of this magnitude exists today in an Earth-crossing orbit. However, we cannot exclude the possibility of a large comet appearing at any time and dealing the Earth a devastating blow that might lead to human extinction. I will return to this issue later when I discuss mitigation strategy.


World War II was brought to an end by exploding two atomic devices of modest energies. The end of WW II rapidly changed to the Cold War and a race by various nations to acquire atomic and nuclear devices of ever-increasing power. As a legacy of this recent Cold War we now have the beginnings of a technology which one day may be able to destroy or redirect an incoming asteroid or cometary body before it destroys us. So there is cause for hope. When viewed from space, our Earth is beautiful to behold, but it is also vulnerable. Probably, for the first time in its history, its surface dwellers have the potential of guarding this life-supporting 'space capsule' against external threats of damage and human extinction. Cooperation between governments and scientific and military bodies in the world is urgently needed to establish means of defending Earth against such potentially distructive bombardment.

The doomsday

An impact winter can be compared with the scenarios of a 'nuclear winter'. According to these, the explosion of a large number of nuclear missiles would throw huge amounts of dust and smoke into the upper atmosphere, where it would stay for long periods. The result would be darkened skies and lower temperatures for months. In these scenarios, nuclear radiation plays a small part much more important are the injection of dust and smoke into the upper atmosphere and the subsequent effects on climate.


As I write these final few paragraphs, it is October 2007, which marks a significant anniversary. It is 50 years since the former Soviet Union lofted a small satellite called Sputnik 1 into Earth orbit, thus heralding the dawn of the Space Age I recently read a quotation from Buzz Aldrin, the Apollo astronaut who followed Neil Armstrong onto the Moon's surface during the historic first landing in 1969. In 1957, Aldrin recalls, Sputnik 1 made no great impression on him It seemed little more than a stunt.'' It is easy to understand this reaction, considering that he was then flying fighters from bases in West Germany at the front line of the Cold War with the Soviet Union. No doubt the beep-beep signal from space seemed to him to be inconsequential compared to the reality of training for a conventional or even nuclear war in that region of central Europe.

David Irving

David Irving has no professional training in history, but there is no disputing that he has mastered the primary documents of the major Nazi figures, and he is arguably the most historically sophisticated of the deniers. Although his attentions have spanned the Second World War he is the We focus on the Jews because just about everyone else is afraid to. Part of the reason we exist, and part of the pleasure is to be able to deal with a subject that others are not dealing with in a way that we feel helps provide information on what is relevant. I wish that the same considerations were given in our society to talking about Germans, or Ukrainians, or Hungarians, that are given to talking about the Jews. At the Simon Wiesenthal so-called Museum of Tolerance there are constant references to what the Germans did to the Jews in the Second World War. We permit and encourage in our society what would be considered vicious stereotypes if applied to other groups, when they are applied to the...

Section The Far East

At the beginning of the century, most non-European countries had not yet industrialized and were much poorer than Europe and America. To a large extent, this was still true in 1945, when World War II ended. During the Cold War, it became common to collectively refer to the poor countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America as the third world, with the United States (and its allies) and the Soviet Union (and its allies) as the first two worlds. However, not all those third-world countries have been equally successful in the decades since World War II. A) Japan. This country is not well endowed with either mineral resources or arable land, and before the war was widely thought to be overpopulated. Furthermore, the country had been devastated by American bombing, including nuclear attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Nevertheless, Japan made remarkable economic advances in the decades following World War II, and by 1980 its gross national product had outstripped every European country and...

Growing Crisis

As discussed in chapter 4, evolution had become well accepted by the scientific community by the turn of the twentieth century. It thereafter began to be included in college and secondary school textbooks. The late nineteenth century was not a period of extensive religious hostility to evolution, partly because of the efforts of American scientists who accepted evolution and who also were active church members. It was not until the twentieth century that the antievolution movement became organized, active, and effective. Three trends converged to produce the first major manifestation of antievolutionism in the twentieth century the growth of secondary education, the appearance of Protestant fundamentalism, and the association of evolution with social and political ideas of social Darwinism that became unpopular after World War I.


The leaf-shaped fossil Rangea schneiderhoehni (figure 2.17) was first described by Gurich in 1929 from quartzites composed of coarse sand grains in the Kliphoek Member of the Dabis Formation. The type specimen was feared lost in World War II, when the museum in which it was held was struck by Allied bombers, but a salvage team picked the specimen from the smoking rubble. I examined this smoke-blackened specimen in 1993 at the home of Hans Pflug in Lich, Germany.

Archean To Cenozoic

As we have seen, one of the major problems that the investigation of Earth Time's geological past faced was that of chronological dating of strata and their contained fossils. The mapping, sequencing and correlation of strata allowed for no more than a relative dating. For many British geologists, James Hutton had opened the way to a realisation that the age of the Earth must be very great and could not be defined by or derived from any biblical source. By Darwin's day there was a sense that the history of the Earth had to extend back over many hundreds of millions of years. But there was no hard evidence and influential physicists such as William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, doubted such long time-scales. Not until the beginning of the twentieth century did a method for dating rocks begin to emerge, and even then it proved to be enormously unreliable until the theoretical and technical advances of the 1940s and the Second World War.

Showdown In Dayton

Almost immediately, the young American Civil Liberties Union in New York took up the challenge of testing the new law. Because of restrictions on civil liberties imposed by the government during and after World War I, the ACLU was particularly concerned with free speech. The early 1920s and the preceding decade were a time of social unrest, economic insecurity, and agitation for workers' rights. Strikes in mills and


In the last years of the twentieth century great attention was centered on human communicable diseases, sparked by a spate of movies and best-selling books. What are the chances that a new disease could bring about the extinction of humanity For instance, what if a 100 fatal disease such as HIV were spread as readily as the common cold And what if such a disease were used as a weapon Biological warfare, like nuclear warfare, does have the potential for a radical reduction of the human population if world war erupted. Most disturbing may be the stockpiling of diseases for which we no longer are vaccinated (e.g., smallpox), and the genetic engineering of new, virulent strains of disease, the subject of countless movie and book plots. Two observations argue against the possibility of a species-ending epidemic. First, there is no evidence that any single disease has ever killed off any species. Second, humanity now has a technology that can combat disease with increasing efficiency each...


A decade later, following the end of the Second World War, American scientists Harrison Brown and Claire Patterson, who had worked on the Manhattan Project and the development of the atomic bomb, became interested in using meteorites to calculate the age of the Solar System. In 1953, Patterson managed to determine the lead isotope content of the Canyon Diablo meteorite, which blasted Meteor Crater in Arizona around 50,000 years ago. From this, he calculated an age of 4510 million years and compared it with an age of 4560 million years calculated for lead values from earth-bound granite and basalt rocks. He concluded that the similarity between the dates indicated that this was also the date at which the Earth first formed. By 1956 Patterson had made further measures from different meteorites and deep-sea sediments, which represented a generalised sample of Earth rocks. Again, the average worked out at 4.55 billion years, very close to Holmes's figure. Claire Patterson, 1922-95,...

Nutritional Factors

By the end of the Mesozoic Era, an essentially modern type of flora had evolved on land. Gymnosperms, which had been the dominant plants, were gradually superseded by angiosperms, especially deciduous trees and shrubs, adapted to seasonal climates. Shortly before World War II, Cambridge biochemist Ernest Baldwin suggested that an enforced change in diet from tree ferns to deciduous plants might have caused constipation and other nutritional disorders for herbivorous dinosaurs. In 1976, Tony Swain argued that the ability of flowering plants to produce hydrolysable tannins,which are more efficient as feeding deterrents than the compounds present in lower plants, would have greatly reduced the amount of palatable food available to all herbivores. Furthermore, angiosperms synthesise many toxic alkaloids that are absent from most lower plants and are far less easily detected by extant reptiles than they are by mammals. Although these alkaloids might have been responsible for direct...

Plate tectonics

After the Second World War, new fields of geophysics opened up. Palaeomagnetic studies in particular contributed greatly in reinforcing the evidence for relative continental motion from apparent polar wandering curves (Figure 1.1). In parallel, oceanographers had established the existence of continuous ridges and spurs of submarine mountain chains that usually coincided with mid-oceanic areas which were also areas of concentrated seismic activity, while marine geologists were becoming aware that the ocean floors were youngest at the ridges and became gradually older as one traversed normal to the ridges. Thus,

Manmade craters

During the last few centuries, the military learned the 'art' of creating small craters with, initially, relatively small quantities of gunpowder. As with many other aspects of technology, mankind's understanding was greatly enhanced by war, or the threat of war. The effects of cratering became more generally appreciated during World War I, but it was not until World War II, in 1940, that British scientists conducted a series of tests to determine empirical relationships that would permit estimates to be made of the size and shape of craters caused by high-explosive (HE) charges. These tests, carried out in soil and representative rock types encountered in England, permitted relationships to be established between the diameter of the crater and the energy of the charge. The range of tests carried out later by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the 1950s on soils and lightly cemented soils was impressive. They too established relationships between the various parameters. At the end of...

Catastrophic Impacts

This problem becomes more conspicuous when we look at the next item on the Rare Earth laundry list the evolutionary role played by catastrophes, such as major collisions. Impacts by comets and asteroids, it's generally agreed, can have both positive and negative effects on a planet's biosphere. As Carl Sagan said, Comets giveth, and comets taketh away. Quite apart from any role they play in delivering organic matter and water, impacting objects may both benefit and harm the prospects for biological evolution. If they battered a world often and hard enough, they might eradicate life or prevent it ever from crawling out of its deep, dark hiding places. But planetary traumas can also act as stimuli. Like wars, they cause horrifying devastation and loss of life but also lead to accelerated development. Rocketry, aviation, electronic computers and radar all progressed rapidly during the Second World War. In a similar way, natural planetary catastrophes can drive biological evolution to new...

The year

The First World War and the Bolshevik Revolution were to occupy the country's attention for many years. The impact site was in Russia's most remote and rugged region and no effort was made to launch a scientific expedition there. And then the 'tongue of flame' that engulfed the beautiful Siberian taiga was forgotten.

Invasive ants

Entomologists have identified about 150 species of invasive ants, six of which attract most attention by their egregious ability to colonize and devastate vast tracts of territory. Take Line-pithema humile. Originally from Argentina and Brazil, this species was first described in 1868 near Buenos Aires, which is why it is commonly known as the Argentine ant'. Its expansion began soon after by 1891, it had been found in the southern states of the America and by 1904 it had reached Europe. The entomologist Luc Passera, from Toulouse, says it probably arrived in France among orchids imported from South America by horticulturists on the Riviera. From there, travelling westwards during the 1960s, hidden among container-loads of plants being sent to enhance the newly developed resorts of Port-Leucate and La Grande-Motte, the ants reached the shores of Languedoc, where they proliferated. In the mean time, they had reached South Africa in 1908 and Australia in 1939 then they arrived in...

Neolithic Biotech

As microbiologists discovered microbial alchemy, they searched for species that could carry out new kinds of useful chemistry. Chaim Weizmann, the first president of Israel, originally came to fame through his work in biotechnology. Living in Britain during World War I, he discovered bacteria that could manufacture acetone, an ingredient in explosives. Winston Churchill quickly took advantage of it by building a string of factories to breed the bacteria in order to make cheap acetone for the Royal Navy. The next generation of microbiologists began manipulating genes to make them even more efficient. By bombarding the mold that makes penicillin, scientists created mutants with extra copies of penicillin genes, allowing the mold to make more of the drug.

The meteorite hunter

In 1921 the Soviet Academy of Sciences approved the country's first special meteorite expedition, which was charged with the task of locating and examining meteorites fallen in inhabited regions of Russia. One of the expedition's tasks was to gather information from local populations and talk to eyewitnesses. The expedition left Petrograd (as St Petersburg was known after the First World War the old name sounded too German for contemporary Russians) on 5 September 1921 under the leadership of Kulik.

The Brave New World

I want to end this chapter and the book by looking somewhat further into the future. What might be the consequences of our knowledge of molecular biology and development on our children in the next 50-100 years, and what are the longer-term implications of our being able to control fundamental developmental processes In the near term, there are some very interesting and important issues that we all should consider as a society because they raise potentially profound ethical questions. One might compare the state of biological knowledge and practical technical potential we have today to that of physics in the first part of this century, when it become evident that, in principle, nuclear energy could be harnessed for a variety of purposes including creation of weapons of mass destruction. It is certainly the case that the ethical integrity of physicists from this time has been questioned as a result of their role in developing nuclear weapons. Development of the first atomic bomb was a...

If We Succeed

It has been suggested that the contents of the initial message received will contain instructions for avoiding our own self-destruction, a possibly common fate of societies shortly after they reach the technical phase. There are certainly enough nuclear weapons on our planet today to destroy every man, woman, and child many times over. It is proposed that advanced extraterrestrial civilizations, motivated either by altruism or through a selfish interest in maintaining a stimulating set of communicants, convey the information for stabilizing societies. I do not know if this is possible historical differences between organisms and societies with billions of years of independent evolution would be enormous. But it is a possibility not worth ignoring, this feedback hypothesis that the existence of interstellar communication enlarges the number of civilizations and may be the agency of our own survival. There is another way in which such a feedback process works, even if there are no...


The second most important source, 0.4 mSv, is from the medical use of radiation. It has an increasing trend, thanks to increasingly available medical radiation facilities. The third cause is the fallout from past weapons tests i.e., 0.005mSv. The value has been decreasing thanks to the Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests, the maximum value being reached in 1963, when it was 7 of the natural background. Other man-made sources, like the Chernobyl accident and nuclear power production, are much smaller, 0.002 mSv and 0.0002 mSv, respectively.

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