Plasmalemma see plasma membrane

Plasma membrane A unit membrane surrounding the cell's protoplasm cell membrane plasmalemma. plasmatocytes n.pl. Gr. plasma, formed or molded kytos, container Small to large polymorphic hemocytes with a round to elongate nucleus and with either homogeneous or finely granular or finely vacuolated cytoplasm. plasmid n. Gr. plasma, formed or molded eidos, like DNA molecules that are not attached to a chromosome but are inherited regularly. plasmon n. Gr. plasma, formed or molded All...

Calyoptis larva see calyptopis stage

Gr. kalypto, cover (ARTHRO Insecta) In Diptera, small membranous lobes or disk-like structures at the base of the wing, just above the halter. see alula squama. calyptoblastic a. Gr. kalyptos, covered blastos, bud (CNID Hydrozoa) Pertains to hydranths in which the gonophores are commonly borne singly or multiply on stalked blas-tostyles that are encased in peridermal gonothecae. calyptobranchiate a. Gr. kalyptos, covered branchia, gills Bearing gills imperceptible from the...

Cryptodicyclic see pseudomonocyclic

Cryptodont shell (MOLL Bivalvia) In some groups of early origin, refers to lack of hinge teeth. see ctenodont shell. cryptogastra a. Gr. kryptos, hidden gaster, stomach Having the venter or belly covered or concealed. see gymnogas-tra. cryptogene a. Gr. kryptos, hidden genos, beginning Of unknown descent. cryptogram n. Gr. kryptos, hidden gramma, written character Method that expresses in a standard code form a collection of data used in classification. cryptogyne n. Gr. kryptos, hidden gyne,...

Coeloblast see hypoblast

Coeloblastula n. pl. -lae Gr. koilos, hollow blastos, bud 1. A hollow blastula a blastula without qualification. 2. (PO-RIF Calcarea) The simple type of blastula larva found in Calcinia . coeloconoid a. Gr. koilos, hollow konos, cone eidos, form Approaching conical but with concave sides extraconic. see conoid, cyrtoconoid. coelogastrula n. Gr. koilos, hollow gaster, stomach A gas-trula derived from a coeloblastula. coelom n. Gr. koilos, hollow The body cavity or space between the body wall and...

Propus see propodite

Gr. pro, before rhabdion, little rod (NEMATA) The wall of the prostome. see rhabdion. prosartema n. Gr. pros, forward artema, earring (ARTHRO Crustacea) In Decapoda, a row of dense setae on the inner margin of the basal segment of the antennular peduncle also called eye brush. proscolex n. Gr. pro, before skolex, worm (PLATY Cestoda) The anterior part of a divided scolex. prosiphonate lining (PORIF Calcarea) In recent Sphinctozoa, the lining of the atrial cavity of one chamber...

Connector neurone see association neuron

Connexiva n. pl. sing. -vum L. connexus, join (ARTHRO Insecta) The lateral flanges (laterotergites or paratergites) of the abdomen, where the ventral plates are attached to the main tergal plates. see pulmonarium. connivent a. L. connivere, to close the eyes Converging or coming close together arching inward so the points meet. conoid a. Gr. konos, cone eidos, form Having the form of a cone conoidal. see cyrtoconoid, coeloconoid. conotheca n. Gr. konos, cone theke, case (MOLL Cephalopoda) The...

Diactine see diactinal monaxon

Gr. dis, twice triaina, trident (PORIF) A form of tri-aene produced by loss of one ray from the cladome. diaeresis n. Gr. diairein, to divide (ARTHRO Crustacea) A transverse groove on the posterior part of an exopod (rarely endopod) of a uropod appendage occasionally dividing the exopod into two movable parts. diagenodont teeth (MOLL Bivalvia) Having differentiated cardinal teeth (up to 3) and lateral teeth (up to 2) on the hinge plate. diagnosis n. pl. -noses Gr. diagignoskein, to...

Retrofection see autoinfection

L. retro, backwards flectere, to bend Bending in different directions bent or turned backwards. retrogressive development Developmental trend in evolution resulting in simplification of an organism, usually through the complete or partial loss of one or more structures regressive development. retrorse a. L. retrorsus, turned or bent backwards Turned, bent, or directed backward backward projecting. see an-trorse, detrorse. retrovesicular ganglion (NEMATA) The largest ganglion,...

Oral spear see stomatostyle odontostyle

Oral styles (KINOR) Spines arranged in a series around the mouth cone. oral surface (ECHINOD Asteroidea) The entire undersurface of the disc and arms. oral tentacles (moll) Tentacle-like outgrowths of the lip. oral valve (ECHINOD Crinoidea) One of 5 low triangular flaps separating the ambulacral grooves. oral vibrissae (ARTHRO Insecta) In certain Diptera, a pair of stout bristles or hairs on each side of the face, near or above the oral margin larger than those on the vibrissal ridge. orb n. L....

Monometrosis see haplometrosis

Gr. monos, one L. nomen, name Having one name or designation consisting of one term only unino-mial. see binomial. monomorphic colony (BRYO) A colony in which only one kind of zooid occurs in the zone of asexual reproduction. monomorphic polypides (BRYO Phylactolaemata) One morphologic type of organ system in an asexual budding zone. monomorphic zooids (BRYO Gymnolaemata) Zooids of one morphologic type in the zone of astrogenetic repetition. monomorphism n. Gr. monos, one morphe,...

Micronucleocytes see plasmatocytes

Gr. mikros, small organon, instrument A microscopic organism such as most nematodes, rotifers, etc. micropaleontology n. Gr. mikros, small palaios, ancient logos, discourse The study of microscopic fossils. microphagous a. Gr. mikros, small phagein, to eat Feeding on small objects. see macrophagous. microphthalmy n. Gr. mikros, small ophthalmos, eye An abnormally small antenna. microphthalmic a. microplankton n. Gr. mikros, small plankton, wandering Small organisms floating in...

Cupola organ see sensillum campaniformium

L. cupreus, of copper Copper colored, coppery. cupula n. pl. -ae L. dim. cupula, tub (MOLL Cephalopoda) The functional unit of the sensory nerves of the cristae in dibranchiates. cupulate a. L. dim. cupula, tub Cup-shaped bearing a cupule. cupule n. L. dim. cupula, tub A small sucker or acetabulum of various invertebrates. cupuliform a. L. cupula, tub forma, shape Cup-shaped cy-athiform. curculionids n.pl. L. curculio, weevil (ARTHRO Insecta) U- or C-shaped larvae with a distinct...

Zoaea see zoea

Gr. zoon, animal dim. anthos, flower (CNID Anthozoa) An elongate larval form of Zoanthinaria with a ventral band of very long cilia. see zoanthina, Semper's larva. zoanthina n. Gr. zoon, animal dim. anthos, flower (CNID Anthozoa) An oval larval form of Zoanthinaria with a girdle of long cilia near the oral pole. see zoanthella, Semper's larva. zoarium n. Gr. zoon, animal -arium, belonging to (BRYO) A colony. zoea, zooea, zoaea n. Gr. zoe, life A larval stage in the development of...

Metaepisternum see metepisternum

Gr. meta, after L. eruca, caterpillar (ARTHRO Insecta) Poisoning by larval setae on cocoons, etc. see lepidopterism. metafemale n. Gr. meta, after L. femella, little woman (ARTHRO Insecta) In Diptera, an individual with 3 X-chromo-somes and 2 sets of autosomes found in Drosophila. metagastric lobe or area (ARTHRO Crustacea) In Decapoda, the posterior division of the gastric region of the carapace sometimes ill-defined. metagenesis n. Gr. meta, after genesis, beginning Alternation...

Holonephridia see meganephridia

Gr. holos, whole para, near lektos, choose typos, type Any specimen from the original material that is later established as a paratype, it must be of the same sex described by the author. holoparasite n. Gr. holos, whole parasitos, parasite An obligate parasite. holophyletic a. Gr. holos, whole phyle, tribe Denoting a monophyletic group that contains all of the descendants of the most recent common ancestor of that group. see mo-nophyletic.

Glands of Morren see calciferous glands

Gland spines (ARTHRO Insecta) In Diaspidinae, small to large spines that are conical, bifid, or somewhat fimbriate at the tip and have one or more ducts that extend to the tip of the spine pectines plates squamae. gland tubercules (ARTHRO Insecta) In Diaspidinae, a gland spine that is short, basally swollen and sclerotized. glanduba n. pl. -ae L. dim. glans, acorn (ARTHRO Insecta) In Hymenoptera, chitinized ring openings of the cutaneous wax glands found in most sawfly larvae. glandulae...

Posterior cephalic foramen see foramen magnum

Posterior cribellum (ARTHRO Chelicerata) In Arachnida, the posterolateral spinnerets in Stenochilidae. posterior cross vein (ARTHRO Insecta) In Diptera, a wing cross vein at the apex of the discal cell. posterior flange (MOLL Bivalvia) In oysters, the flange posterior to the left valve separated from the main body of the valve by the posterior radial groove. posterior gastric pit (ARTHRO Crustacea) In Decapoda, one of two small dorsal depressions midline on the exterior of carapace identifying...

Tone see tonus

Tonic muscle (MOLL Bivalvia) White, opalescent part of the adductor muscle that reacts slowly, but can hold for long periods of time catch muscle. tonofibrillae n.pl Gr. tonos, stretching L. dim. fibra, fiber Fine connective fibrils extending from the ends of the skeletal muscles into the cuticle. tonus, tone n. Gr. tonos, stretching 1. The normal, maintained nerve impulse traffic. 2. The normal prolonged steady contracture of muscle fibers. tonic a. topochemical sense The sense of smell....

Cervical suture see cervical groove

Cervical vesicle (NEMATA) Distended cuticle anterior to the cervical groove. cerviculate a. L. cervix, neck Having a long neck or neck-like portion. cervicum n. L. cervix, neck (ARTHRO) The neck region. cervinus a. L. cervinus, deer Reddish, deer-gray. cervix n. pl. cervices L. cervix, neck 1. The neck or necklike part. 2. A constriction of the mouth of an organ. 3. (ARTHRO Chelicerata) In Acariformes, the dorsal part of the infracapitulum, between the line of attachment of the cheli-ceral...

Postpeltidium see schizopeltid

L. post, after petiolus, little leg (ARTHRO Insecta) 1. In Formicidae, the second segment of a two-segmented pedicel. 2. In Ichneumonidae, where the petiole (first body segment) abruptly broadens near the spiracles. postphragma n. L. post, after Gr. phragma, fence (ARTHRO Insecta) 1. Internal plates developed from the antecostal ridges at the front and back of the mesothorax and the back of the metathorax that provide attachment for the large longitudinal muscles moving the...

Leptiform see campodeiform larva

Gr. leptos, thin blastos, bud (BRYO) A floato-blast that quickly germinates after release from the parent colony. leptoderan a. Gr. leptos, thin deras, hide, leather (NEMATA) With caudal alae restricted to two sides of the body and not surrounding or meeting posterior to the tail tip. see pelod-eran. leptonema n. Gr. leptos, thin nema, thread A chromatin thread or chromosome at leptotene stage of prophase I in meiosis sometimes used as a synonym of leptotene stage. see leptotene....

Caudal sympathetic system see stomogastric nervous system

Caudal vesicle (ARTHRO Insecta) In braconid larvae, the hind-gut everted through the anus forming a vesicle responsible for about one third of the total gaseous exchange. caudate a. L. cauda, tail 1. Bearing a tail or tail-like appendage. 2. (MOLL) Having the columella of a univalve shell elongated at the base. caudocephalad adv. L. cauda, tail Gr. kephale, head Directed toward the head from the caudal region. caudula n. pl. -lae L. dim. cauda, tail A little tail. caul n. L. caulis, stalk...

Strata pl of stratum

L. stratum, a cover ficare, to make Act or process of being made up of layers. stratum n. pl. -ta L. stratum, a cover 1. A layer of tissue or cells that compose an organ. 2. A group of organisms inhabiting a particular geographical area. 3. A layer of vegetation, usually at the same stage of development. 4. A layer of sedimentary rock or earth. strepsilaematous a. Gr. strepsis, twisting laimos, throat Having a pharynx rotated along its length. see euthylae-matous. streptasters...

Androgynous see hermaphrodite

Gr. aner, male gyne, woman Having male organs develop before female during maturation protan-drous hermaphrodite. android n. Gr. aner, male Resembling a male. androsperm n. Gr. aner, male sperma, seed A male-producing spermatozoan containing a Y-chromosome, limited androsynhesmia n. Gr. aner, male syn, with hesmos, swarm A group of males gathered together during mating season. see synhesmia, gynosynhesmia. androtype n. Gr. aner, male typos, type The male type specimen of a species....

Oligoneuroptera Oligoneoptera see Endopterygota

Gr. oligos, few phagein, to eat Feeding on only a few species of food plants. see monophagous. oligophyletic a. Gr. oligos, few phyle, tribe Derived from a few ancestral forms. see monophyletic. oligopneustic a. Gr. oligos, few pneustikos, of breathing (ARTHRO Insecta) Having one or two functional spiracles on each side, including the amphipneustic, metapneustic and propneustic. oligopod n. Gr. oligos, few pous, foot 1. Bearing few legs. 2. Having fully developed thoracic legs....

Rostel see rostellum

L. rostellum, small beak forma, shape Shaped like a rostellum. rostellum, rostel n. L. rostellum, small beak 1. A small beak or rostrum. 2. (ARTHRO Insecta) The tubular piercing and sucking mouth parts. 3. (BRACHIO) Low projection between anterior muscle scars to which internal oblique muscles are attached. 4. (platy Cestoda) A rounded prominence on the anterior end of the scolex, often furnished with retractile spines or hooks sometimes referred to as an aclid organ. 5. (PLATY...

Gene splicing see splicing

Genetic assimilation The fixation of a genetic character being influenced by artificial environmental changes, not evident in the original phenotype. genetic balance Harmonious interaction of genes ensuring normal development of the organism genic balance. genetic code Genetic information that is encoded into DNA and transcribed to messenger RNA which forms peptides by genetic translation. genetic drift Genetic changes in isolated populations caused by random phenomena rather than by natural...

Sigmoid curve see logistic curve

Signa n.pl. sing. signum L. signum, sign (ARTHRO Insecta) In female Lepidoptera, spines or dentate or roughened patches on the inner wall of the corpus bursae, thought to function in holding or breaking up spermatophores. silicalemma n. L. silex, flint Gr. lemma, peel (PORIF) A unit membrane enclosing the axial filament of a siliceous spi-cule. siliceous, silicious a. L. silex, flint Of or pertaining to silica. silicoblasts n.pl. L. silex, flint Gr. blastos, bud (PORIF) A cell that secretes all...

Imagine see imago

L. imago, image (ARTHRO Insecta) 1. The adult or reproductive stage. 2. In termites, applied only to the adult primary reproductives. imaginai a. imagochrysalis n. L. imago, image Gr. chrysallis, chrysalis (ARTHRO Chelicerata) In the chigger mite life cycle, a quiescent stage between the nymph and adult. imbricate plates (ARTHRO Crustacea) In Cirripedia, the lower lateral, lower latus, and lower latera. imbrication n. L. imbricare, to cover with tiles An overlapping at the margins as...

Cincinnulus see retinaculum

Cinclides n.pl. sing. cinclis Gr. kinklis, latticed gate (CNID Anthozoa) In Actinaria, permanent or temporary perforations of the columnar body wall that permit the extrusion of water or acontia. cinct a. L. cinctum, girdle Belted, girdled or encircled. cinereous a. L. cinereus, ash colored Ash-gray, ashen, or having the color of wood ashes. cingulum n. L. cingulum, girdle 1. Any band or girdle-like structure. 2. (ANN) The clitellum. 3. (MOLL) The colored bands or spiral ornamentation on...

Hypoptera hypoptere see tegula

Gr. hypo, under ptygma, anything folded (NEMATA) Anterior and posterior cuticular flaps of the cloacal opening in some males. see epiptygma. hypopus n. pl. hypopi Gr. hypo, under pous, foot (AR-THRO Chelicerata) 1. In Acari, the second nymphal stage. 2. The non-feeding deutonymph of Acaridida either active, phoretic nymphs or rather inactive resistant nymphs. hy-pop(i)al a. hypopygial spine (ARTHRO Insecta) The caudal spine ending of the hypopygium of some female cynipid wasps....

Apotype see hypotype

Gr. apo, away typos, type Varying from a type. apparatus n. pl. -ratus, -ratuses L. apparatus, equipment Any group of structures or parts that unite together in a apparition n. L. appareo, manifest Something appearing. appeasement behavior That which follows after the attack of one animal on another of the same species with the loser assuming a submissive attitude. appeasement substance The secretion by a social parasite of attractive substances that reduce aggression in a host...

Hybrid vigour see heterosis

Hydatid cyst (platy Cestoda) Metacestode of Echinococcus, with many protoscolices, some budding inside secondary brood cysts. hydatid sand (PLATY Cestoda) Free protoscolices forming the sediment in a hydatid cyst. hydranth n. Gr. hydor, water anthos, flower (CNID Hydro-zoa) A nutritive zooid in a colony the hydroid polyp, bearing a mouth, digestive cavity and tentacles. hydrarch a. Gr. hydor, water arche, beginning A series of changes in time from newly formed pond or lake to land with climax...

Hyperhaploid see hyperploid

Gr. hyper, above meros, part (ANN Oli-gochaeta) Said of regenerate earthworms, which reproduce more segments than originally removed. hypermery n. see hypomeric. hypermetamorphosis n. Gr. hyper, above meta, after morphosis, forming 1. In the broad sense, refers to change of form throughout the life history. 2. (ARTHRO In-secta) A type of metamorphosis development in which different larval insect instars have markedly dissimilar body forms. see heteromorphous. hyperparasite n. Gr....

Carotinalbumen see astaxanthin insectoverdin pterine pigments

L. carpus, wrist Gr. keras, horn (ARTHRO Crustacea) The distal segment (5th) of the antennal peduncle. carpophagous a. Gr. karpos, fruit phagein, to eat Feeding on fruit. carpopod(ite) n. L. carpus, wrist Gr. pous, foot 1. (ARTHRO) The fifth segment of a generalized arthropod appendage. 2. (ARTHRO Chelicerata) The patella. 3. (ARTHRO Crustacea) The carpus. 4. (ARTHRO Insecta) The tibia. carpus n. pl. carpi L. carpus, Gr. wrist 1. The wrist. 2. (AR-THRO Crustacea) The...

Apogamy see apomixis

Gr. an, without polos, pivot pole Lacking a pole without radiating processes. apolegamic a. Gr. apolegein, to choose gamos, marriage Pertaining to sexual selection. apolysis n. Gr. apo, away lysis, loosen 1. (ARTHRO) The first process of molting, characterized by the detachment of the old cuticle from the underlying hypodermal (epidermal) cells. see ecdysis. 2. (platy Cestoda) The detachment of a gravid proglottid in tapeworms. apolytic a. see an-apolysis. apomict n. Gr. apo, away...

Entotropha see aptera

Entozoa n.pl., sing. entozoon Gr. entos, within zoon, animal The internal parasites collectively. entozoal a., ento-zoan a. & n. entozoic a. Gr. entos, within zoon, animal Living within another animal an internal parasite. see endozoic, epizoic. enucleate v. L. ex, out of nucleus, kernel 1. To remove an entire organ, etc. 2. To destroy or remove the nucleus of a cell. envelope n. OF. enveloper, wrap up (ARTHRO Insecta) A sheath surrounding the nest of a social wasp. environment n. F....

Tentorial fovea see tentorial pits

Tentorial macula (ARTHRO Insecta) The depressions or dark spots marking the points of union of the dorsal tentorial arms and the epicranal wall near the antennae. tentorial pits (ARTHRO Insecta) External depressions on the surface of the head marking points of union of the arms with the outer wall of the head usually two in the epis-tomal suture and one at the lower end of each postoccipital suture. tentorium n. pl. -oria L. tentorium, tent (ARTHRO Insecta) Two anterior and two posterior...

Urite see cirrus

Urn bodies 1. (MESO Rhombozoa) An urn-like sac on the ventral surface of infusoriform larvae of a dicyemid that contains four germinal cells. 2. (SIPUN) Vase-shaped, multi-cellular structures in the coelom. urocardiac ossicle (ARTHRO Crustacea) In a decapodan gastric mill, a T-shaped plate running backwards and downwards, sometimes bearing a U- or V-shaped median tooth. urogastric groove (ARTHRO Crustacea) A short transverse groove in the median or submedian region of a decapod carapace...

Alary muscles see aliform muscles

Alary polymorphism (ARTHRO Insecta) Two or more shapes of wings in the same species, not necessarily correlated to sex. alassostasy n. Gr. allassein, to alter stasis, standing (ARTHRO Chelicerata) An orthostasic stage in the life cycle in volving secondary changes in number and or shape of stases and number of molts. see orthostasy. alatae n. L. ala, wing (ARTHRO Insecta) Winged forms of Aphidae. alatate a. L. ala, wing Possessing lateral wing-like expansions. alate a. L. ala, wing 1. Winged,...

Cystocercous cercariae see cystophorous cercariae

Gr. kystis, bladder kytos, container (AR-THRO Insecta) 1. A type of specialized granular hemocyte that has a small, sharply defined nucleus and a pale, hyaline cytoplasm containing black granules coagulocytes. see granulocyte. 2. Has also been applied as cells that enclose gonadial germ cells, follicle cells of an ovary, and cyst cell of the testis. cystogenic cells (PLATY Trematoda) Secretory cells in a cercaria that produce a metacercarial cyst. cystoidal diaphragm (BRYO...

Gynocophoral canal see gynaecophoral canal

Gr. gyne, woman genesis, descent Female parthenogenesis pseudogamy development of a haploid individual possessing only the maternal chromosome set. see androgenesis. gynomerogony n. Gr. gyne, woman meros, part gonos, seed Development of an egg fragment containing only the female nucleus (maternal chromosomes). gynosynhesmia n. Gr. gyne, woman syn, together hesmos, swarm A group of females gathering together during mating season. see androsynhesmia, synhesmia. gynozooid n. Gr....

Heterocotylus see hectocotylus

Gr. heteros, different daktylos, finger (AR-THRO Chelicerata) Having claws, apoteles or ungues differing from each other. heterodactyly n. see homodactyl heterodont a. Gr. heteros, different odous, tooth Having a variety of tooth types. heterodynamic a. Gr. heteros, different dynamis, power Genes not simultaneously influencing the same developmental process. heterodynamic life cycle 1. A life cycle in which there is a period of dormancy. 2. A life cycle that includes a rest...

Axis cylinder An axon

Gr. axon, axle blastos, bud (MESO Rhombozoa) Germinal cells of dicyemids that undergo cleavage and produce new individuals. axocoel n. Gr. axon, axle koilos, hollow (ECHINOD) The first pair of coelomic sacs in an embryo, that open to the surface by the hydropore. axon, axone n. Gr. axon, axle A long-unbranched or sparsely branched, nerve fiber, which usually conveys impulses away from the cell-body of its neuron. axoneme n. Gr. axon, axle nema, thread The core of a cil-ium or...

Genal ctenidium see ctenidium

Genal groove (ARTHRO Insecta) In Diptera, a depressed and groove-like area near the ventral limits of the ptilinal suture and the juncture of the gena and parafacial cheek groove transverse impression. genal orbit (ARTHRO Insecta) That area of an orbit adjacent to the ventral margin of a compound eye. genaponta n. L. gena, cheek pons, bridge (ARTHRO In-secta) In specialized Hymenoptera, a bridge composed of the fused postgenae that closes the underside of the head behind the mouth.

Hook hooklets see hamulus uncus

Gr. hoplon, implement chaite, hair (ANN Oligochaeta) Denoting earthworm male terminalia in which one pair of sperm ducts open together with the prostatic ducts of segment xvii or close to the prostatic pores, the other pair of sperm ducts similarly associated with the prostates of segment xix. horiodimorphism n. Gr. horios, in season dis, twice mor-phe, form Seasonal dimorphism. horismology n. Gr. horos, boundry logos, discourse (ARTHRO Insecta) Scientific description of the...

Hypophare see hypomere

Hypopharyngeal glands (ARTHRO Insecta) In bees, paired glands in the facial part of the head that open through the lateral areas of the hypopharynx pharyngeal glands food hypopharynx n. Gr. hypo, under pharyngx, pharynx 1. (AR-THRO Chelicerata) The chitinous plate situated on the labium in certain Acari. 2. (ARTHRO Crustacea) The metastoma. 3. (ARTHRO Insecta) a. A median mouth-part structure anterior to the labium, usually associated with the salivary glands by ducts. b. A tongue-like lobe...

Nematoidea see Nemata

Gr. nema, thread logos, discourse That branch of zoology dealing with nematodes. Nematomorpha, nematomorphs n. n.pl. Gr. nema, thread morphos, form A phylum of worm-like animals that are free-living as adults and parasitic in arthropods as juve niles horsehair worms gordian worms. nematophagous a. Gr. nema, thread phagein, to eat Feeding on nematodes. nematophore n. Gr. nema, thread phorein, to carry (CNID Hydrozoa) A club-like or capitate ended structure in a hy-droid colony...

Head bulb see ballonets

Head-fans (ARTHRO Insecta) In Diptera, fan-like rays on the main part of the torma of mature larva of Simuliidae that function as filtering organs in running water, or a raking function in Crozetia . head gland (PLATY Trematoda) Glands of circaria which produce a secretion emitted into the matrix of the tegument that is thought to function in the postpenetration adjustment of the schistosomula. head valve (MOLL Polyplacophora) The anterior valve of chitons. heart n. A.S. heorte Sometimes used...

Biophotogenesis see bioluminescence

Gr. bios, life physis, nature The application of the laws of physics to the study of living organisms. bioplasm n. Gr. bios, life plassein, to mold Protoplasm. bioplast n. Gr. bios, life plassein, to mold 1. A minute mass of living protoplasm. 2. An amoeboid cell. biopoiesis n. Gr. bios, life poiesis, making The origination of the first living thing, as well as the preceding chemical history. biopotentiality n. pl. -ties Gr. bios, life L. potens, powerful The potential of a tissue...

Quadricolumella see columella

L. quadrus, fourfold dentatus, tooth Having 4 teeth or tooth-like processes. quadrifid a. L. quadrus, fourfold Four rows in 4 segment. quadrilateral a. L. quadrus, fourfold latus, side 1. Formed or bounded by 4 sides 4 lines. 2. (ARTHRO Insecta) In zy-gopterous Odonata, the discal wing cell. quadrimaculate a. L. quadrus, fourfold macula, spot Having 4 spots. quadripartite a. L. quadrus, fourfold partitus, divided In 4 parts. quadripinnate a. L. quadrus, fourfold penna, feather...

Rhabditoid bursa see bursa

Rhabditoid larva (NEMATA) A bacterial feeding larva among free-living or parasitoid forms, in which the esophagus is divided into corpus, isthmus and a posterior valved bulb. rhabdocrepid a. Gr. rhabdos, rod krepis, boot (PORIF) A desma deposited on a diactinal monaxon. rhabdoid n. Gr. rhabdos, rod eidos, like 1. Rod-like any rod-shaped body. 2. (CNID) Nematocysts that open at the tip with a definite cylindrical hempe. 3. (PLATY Turbellaria) A group of epidermal and subepidermal inclusions...

Rami pl of ramus

L. ramus, branch cornu, horn (ARTHRO Insecta) Having a branched antennae. ramicostellate a. L. ramus, branch dim. costa, rib (BRACHIO) Having a costellae on the shell resultant from branching. ramification n. L. ramus, branch ficare, to make Branching out in all directions offshoot. ramiform a. L. ramus, branch forma, shape Resembling or shaped like branches. ramify v. -fied -fying L. ramus, branch ficere, to make To send forth outgrowth or branches.

Nectozooid see nectophore

Needham's sac organ MOLL Cephalopoda In males, a specialization of the sperm duct for formation and storage of spermatophores spermatophoric sac. negative geotropism Movement directed away from the earth's gravitational force. negative phototropism The tendency to retreat from light. negative tropism The tendency to retreat from stimuli. nekton n. Gr. nektes, swimmer Organisms that swim in the open water, i.e., jellyfish, squid, fishes, turtles, seals and whales necton. see seston. nema n. Gr....

Metatergum see metanotum

Gr. meta, after theein, to run telos, end ARTHRO 1. A neotenous adult arthropod after undergoing normal or more than normal numbers of molts. 2. In Insecta, often resulting in failure to develop wings, or forming brachypterous adults. metathoracotheca n. Gr. meta, after thorax, chest theke, case ARTHRO Insecta The pupal covering of the metathorax. metathorax n. Gr. meta, after thorax, chest ARTHRO Insecta The third or posterior segment of the thorax, bearing the hind legs and the...

Biocontrol see biological control

Gr. bios, life kyklos, circle Subdivisions of the biosphere land, sea and freshwater. biodegradable a. Gr. bios, life L. de, down gradatus, step by step abilis, tending to be Substances that can be broken down by micro-organisms mainly aerobic bacteria . biodemography n. Gr. bios, life demos, people graphein, to write A science concerned with the statistical study of the ecology and genetics of a given population. bioecology n. Gr. bios, life oikos, house logos, discourse The study...

Bicondylic see dicondylic

L. bis, two Gr. konos, cone Being formed as two cones placed base to base. biconvex a. L. bis, two convexus, arched outward Being convex on opposite sides lens-shaped. see amphicyrtic, amphicoelous. bicorn a. L. bis, two cornu, horn Bearing two horns cres bicornuate a. L. bis, two cornutus, horned Having two horns or cephalic processes. bicornuate uterus A uterus in which both uteri are fused, but have short lateral extensions. bicuspidate a. L. bis, two cuspidatus, pointed Being...

Subclypeal tube see pseudotrachea

L. sub, under colonia, farm BRYO Stenolae-mata A functional grouping within a colony, in which the skeletons may or may not be of the same structure. subcosta n. L. sub, under costa, rib ARTHRO Insecta A longitudinal vein between the costa and the radius. subcoxa n. L. sub, under coxa, hip 1. ARTHRO A secondary proximal subdivision of the coxopodite. 2. ARTHRO Crustacea see precoxa. subcoxal pleurites 1. ARTHRO Insecta Sclerites that are separated primitively or fused, that form...

Calicle see calycle

Calicoblastic epithelium CNID Anthozoa A specialized portion of the ectoderm of corals that produces the aragonite skeleton in the true or stony corals. caliology n. Gr. kalia, hut logos, discourse The study of dwellings or natural shelters utilized by animals. callosity n. pl. -ties L. callus, hard skin 1. A state or quality of being callous. 2. MOLL Gastropoda The local thickened part of the callus or inductura of the shell. callous a. L. callus, hard skin Hardened having a callus or...

Parauterine organ see paruterine organ

Gr. para, beside L. axis, axle 1. To move parallel to the body axis. 2. par-axial ARTHRO Chelicerata In spiders, pertaining to chelicerae with the paturon projecting forward with the fangs moving in a downward direction. see di-axial. paraxial organs ARTHRO Chelicerata Special gland pockets that produce the spermatophores of male Scorpions. paraxon n. Gr. para, beside axon, axle The collateral branch of an axon. Parazoa n. Gr. para, beside zoon, animal A subkingdom containing...

Monocondylar see monocondylic

Gr. monos, one kondylos, knuckle Having one condyle. monocondylic joint A joint with a single point of articulation between segments. monocrepid a. Gr. monos, one krepis, base PORIF Pertaining to a desma formed on a monaxon. monocule n. Gr. monos, single L. oculus, eye ARTHRO A one-eyed animal, as certain crustaceans and insects. monocyclic a. Gr. monos, one kyklos, circle ECHINOD Cri- noidea Refers to calyx plates of primitive stalked crinoids having an aboral cycle of 5 plates...

Photopic see apposition eye

Photoreactivation reaction Partial reversal of damage to biological systems by ultraviolet light by longer wave length light. photoreceptor n. Gr. phos, light L. receptor, receiver A sense organ responsive to light. photosynthesis n. Gr. phos, light synthesis, place together The formation of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water by the absorption of light by chlorophyll. phototaxis n. Gr. phos, light taxis, arrangement The movement in response to the stimulus of light. see helio-taxis....

Occipital tentacle see cirrus

L. occiput, back of the head ARTHRO Insecta 1. The dorsal posterior part of the cranium, between the occipital and postoccipital sutures in many the boundaries with the vertex and postgenae are not delimited. 2. In Formicidae, the short region between the vertex and the neck. occipital a. occludent margin ARTHRO Crustacea In Cirripedia, the margin of the scutum and tergum bordering the orifice. occludent teeth ARTHRO Crustacea In Cirripedia, small projections on the occludent scutal...

Prothoracic shield see cervical shield

Gr. pro, before thorax, chest ARTHRO Insecta The first segment of the thorax, bearing the front legs, but no wings manitruncus corselet. prothoracic a. protobranchite n. Gr. protos, first branchiae, gills ARTHRO Insecta Respiratory apparatus contained in the rectum of nymphal Odonata. see branchial basket. protocephalon n. Gr. protos, first kephale, head 1. ARTHRO Insecta The procephalic part of the definitive head during evolutionary stages. 2. ARTHRO Crustacea see ac-ron....

Water pore see hydropore

Waterston's organ ARTHRO Insecta In Hymenoptera Cera-phronidae, a medial patch of reticulum on the 5th gastric tergite function unknown. water vascular system ECHINOD A unique system comprised of tube-like body wall appendages tube-feet , and a system of canals derived from the coelom. wax n. A.S. weax, wax ARTHRO Insecta A substance secreted by various insects consisting of a complex mixture of lipids, varying from species to species. wax gland Any gland in various parts of the body that...

Prohaemocyte see prohemocyte

Gr. pro, before haptein, to fasten PLATY Tre-matoda In Monogenea, the anterior adhesive and feeding organs. prohemocyte, prohaemocyte n. Gr. pro, before haima, blood kytos, container ARTHRO A small, round, oval or elliptical hemocyte with a relatively large nucleus and intensely basophilic cytoplasm that divides and gives rise to other types of cells hemocytoblast stem cell urzellen. prolegs n.pl. L. pro, before ON. leggr, leg ARTHRO Insecta The fleshy abdominal legs of larvae...

Parapleurolophocercous cercaria see pleurolophocercous cercaria

Parapleuron n. pl. -ura Gr. para, beside pleuron, side ARTHRO Insecta In Coleoptera, the undivided pleura of the thorax. paraplicate folding BRACHIO A fold on either side of the dorsal sulcus on the brachial valve. parapod, parapodium n. pl. -dia Gr. para, beside pous, foot 1. ANN Polychaeta Paired lateral, fleshy, paddle-like appendages that bear one or more cirri usually consisting of two main divisions, the notopodium and the neuropodium. 2. MOLL Gastropoda a. In Opisthobranchia, a lobelike...

Ovogonium see oogonium

L. ovum, egg Gr. eidos, form Egg-shaped ovate. ovotestis n. pl. -testes L. ovum, egg testis, testicle Hermaphroditic reproductive gland an organ that produces both spermatozoa and ova at the same or at different periods of the life cycle a syngonic gonad. ovovitellarium n. L. ovum, egg vitellus, yolk PLATY Cestoda A combined mass of ova and vitelline cells. ovoviviparous a. L. ovum, egg vivus, alive parere, to bring forth Producing eggs that are incubated and hatched within the...

Sympod sympodite see protopod

Gr. symptoma, anything that has befallen one logos, discourse A branch of medical science concerned with symptoms of diseases. synanthropism n. Gr. syn, together anthropos, man The propensity of an organism to live in or around human dwellings. synapomorphy n. Gr. syn, together apo, separate morphe, form The sharing of derived characters by several species. see plesiomorphy. synapse, synaptic junction, neurosynapse The central mechanism of intercommunication of nerve impulses...

Osmium see osmosium

Gr. osmos, pushing cum, with forma, shape An organism having the salt content of the blood determined by that of the surrounding sea water. osmomorphosis n. Gr. osmos, pushing morphos, form Change in shape due to osmotic salt changes in the environment. osmoreceptors n.pl. Gr. osmos, pushing recipere, to receive Receptors that sense changes in osmotic pressure. osmoregulation n. Gr. osmos, pushing L. regulatus, regulated Maintaining the osmotic pressure in the body by...

Articulated apex see clasp filament

Articulate fascia A band of contiguous spots. articulation n. L. articulare, to divide A movable point of contact between two sclerotic parts of a structure. artifact, artefact n. L. ars, art facere, to make An appearance, or structure, produced by preparation of material that was not present in the original material before the manipulation. artificial classification A classification based on convenient and conspicuous diagnostic characters, ignoring characters indicating relationship often a...

Rostral notch see rostral incisure

Rostral plate ARTHRO Crustacea In malacostracan Phyllo-carida, the anteriorly projecting, movably articulated, median extension of the carapace. rostral tooth ARTHRO Crustacea On a Decapoda carapace, a tooth on the rostrum, may be single or multiple, with the upper, lower and lateral teeth distinguished. rostrate a. L. rostrum, beak Having a rostrum or beak-like process. rostriform a. L. rostrum, beak, forma, shape Having the form of a beak. rostrolateral ARTHRO Crustacea In balanomorph...

Oligopod larva see campodeiform larva

Gr. oligos, few pyren, stone of a fruit With reduced number of functional spermatozoa. see apyrene, eupyrene. oligosaprobic a. Gr. oligos, few sapros, putrid Describing a body of water with slow organic matter decomposition and high oxygen content. oligotaxy n. Gr. oligos, few taxis, arrangement Weak devel opment of secondarily formed organs usually not numerous . oligothermic a. Gr. oligos, few thermos, heat Having a tolerance for low temperatures. oligotokous a. Gr. oligos, few...

Neotenic reproduction see neoteny

Gr. neos, young teinein, to extend One of the juvenile harmones. neoteny, enoteinia, neoteiny n. Gr. neos, young teinein, to extend 1. A term referring to the condition in which the gonad completes its development prematurely before the normal differentiation of imaginal structures are completed. see hysterotely. 2. ARTHRO Further classified into two categories prothetely and metathetely. neotenic a. neotrichy n. Gr. neos, new trichos, hair ARTHRO Chelicer-ata In Acari, secondary...

Pseudocoelomocytes see coelomocytes

Gr. pseudos, false L. cum, with pati, suffer Fertilization occurring under unusual conditions, that would not normally happen. pseudocone a. Gr. pseudos, false konas, cone ARTHRO In-secta In certain Diptera and Odonata, a condition where the cone of the ommatidium is liquid-filled or gelatinous rather than a crystalline cone eucone condition . pseudocopulation n. Gr. pseudos, false L. copula, bond ARTHRO Insecta Pollinization of a flower by copulation of a male insect...

Nephroblast see nephridioblast

Gr. nephros, kidney kytos, container Cells that occur singly or in groups in various parts in an invertebrate body and function to transform original waste material into a form with which the metabolic pathways can deal. nephrodinic a. Gr. nephros, kidney odis, labor Having a single duct serving both excretory and genital purposes. nephrogonoduct n. Gr. nephros, kidney gonos, progeny L. ductus, leading Combined genital and excretory ducts. nephromixium n. pl. -ia Gr. nephros,...

Paragaster see spongocoel

Gr. para, beside dim. gaster, stomach PO-rif The gastrula formed by invagination of the flagellate cells of a amphiblastula. parageneon n. Gr. para, beside genos, descent A little-changing species that embraces some aberrant genotypes. paragenetic a. Gr. para, beside genesis, descent A chromosome change that influences the expression of a gene but not structure. paraglossa n. pl. -ae Gr. para, beside glossa, tongue AR-THRO Insecta One of a pair of terminal lingular lobes of the...

Telegonic see panoistic ovariole

Gr. teleios, perfect chrysallis, golden thing ARTHRO Chelicerata In Acari, the third stage nymph enclosed in the integument of the preceeding nym-phal stage. telenchium n. Gr. telos, end enchos, spear NEMATA Secernentea Sometimes used to denote the shaft of the stylet in plant parasites in the order Tylenchida. see metenchium. teleoconch n. Gr. teleios, complete, konche, shell MOLL Gastropoda The entire shell, excluding the protoconch. teleodont a. Gr. teleios, complete odon,...

Reciprocal feeding Trophallaxis

L. re, back clinare, to lean Inclined backward. reclivous, reclivate a. L. re, back clivus, slope 1. Having the form of a sigmoid curve a convex and concave line. 2. ARTHRO Insecta An insect wing vein having the front end farther from the wing base than the hind end. see verticle, inclivous. recombinant a. L. re, back combinere, to join Organisms or cells arising by genetic recombination. recombinant DNA DNA produced by recombination, particularly DNA produced from 2 different...

Monovoltine see univoltine

Gr. monos, one xenos, guest Pertaining to the rearing of an organism with only one know species as a food source. see axenic. monoxenous a. Gr. monos, one xenos, guest Living within a single host during a parasite's life cycle. see dixenous. monozoic a. Gr. monos, one zoon, animal PLATY Cestoda Non-strobilated cestodes. monozonian a. Gr. monos, one zone, girdle ARTHRO Dip-lopoda Having a cylindrical sclerite composed of fused ter-gites, pleurites and sternites. montane a. L. mons,...

Gynander see gynandromorph

Gr. gyne, woman aner, male archon, leader ARTHRO Insecta Social organization among insects differing from gynarchy in that the male takes part in establishing the colony. gynandromorph n. Gr. gyne, woman aner, male morphe, form An individual in which male and female somatic characters exist bilateral gynandromorphs, with the left and right halves of different sex sex mosaic. see intersex, chimera. gynandromorphism n. Gr. gyne, woman aner, male morphe, form The condition of being...

Ear see auricle

A.S. efes, lower border of a roof MOLL Polypla-cophora Portions of the tegmentum just over the line where the insertion plates and the sutural laminae project. eave tissue MOLL Polyplacophora Composition of the shell that forms the eaves either porcelaneous or riddled with microscopic tubules spongy . eburnean a. L. eburneus, ivory Made of, or like ivory ivory white. ecalcarate a. Gr. ek, out of L. calcar, spur Lacking spurs or calcaria. ecarinate a. Gr. ek, out of L. carina, keel...

Antennular scale see stylocerite

L. dim. antenna, feeler ARTHRO Crustacea The first antenna anteriormost appendage, primarily sensory in function, but often adapted for other functions in different species derived from appendages on the primitive second preoral somite homologous to antennae of insects. see antenna. antenodal a. L. ante, before nodus, knob Preceding a node or nodes. antenodal cross veins ARTHRO Insecta In Odonata, wing veins along the costal border between the base and the nodus, extending from the...

Cephalic tentacles see frontal tentacles

Cephalic veil ANN Polychaeta A delicate hood-like membrane separating the opercular paleae from the buccal tentacles in Pectinariidae. cephalic ventricle NEMATA The fluid-filled area anterior to the end of the esophagus. cephalic vesicle ARTHRO Insecta A single sac formed by the union of the larval pharynx and its diverticula, through which it is presumed that fluid passes to circulate into and around the embryo. cephalid n. Gr. kephale, head NEMATA A nerve commissure of a highly refractive...

Phena pl of phenon

Gr. phainein, to appear A genetically controlled phenotypic character. phenetic classification A classification based on phenotypes rather than evolution from a common ancestor. phenetic ranking Ranking into categories according to degree of overall similarity. phengophil a. Gr. phengos, light philos, loving Preferring light. phengophobe a. Gr. phengos, light phobos, fear Shunning light. phenogram n. Gr. phainein, to appear gramme, mark A diagram showing degree of similarity among...

Stenosaline see stenohaline

Gr. stenos, narrow Constriction of vessels, ducts, etc. stenotele n. Gr. stenos, narrow telos, the end CNID A stinging nematocyst a sprially coiled thread armed with spiral rows of projections that is provided at its distal end with a lid operculum a penetrant. stenothermal a. Gr. stenos, narrow therme, heat Confined to living within a narrow range of temperatures. see eu-rythermal. stenotopic a. Gr. stenos, narrow topos, place Organisms having a limited geographical distribution or...

Free pupa see exarate pupa

Free-swimming Swimming about not sessile. free-walled colony BRYO Stenolaemata A colony covered loosely by membranous exterior walls that are not attached at oral apertures. free-wax cell ARTHRO Insecta Cells found in the hemolymph of Aphididae and Coccoidea. frenate wing coupling ARTHRO Insecta Lepidopterous wing coupling with a well developed frenulum that engages with a catch or retinaculum on the underside of the fore wing, securing the wings together. frenulum n. pl. -la L. dim. frenum,...

Gonic syngonic

Gr. amphi, on both sides gonos, seed biparental or bisexual reproduction. amphigonus a. amphihaploid n. Gr. amphi, on both sides haploos, simple eidos, form Said of haploid types produced from amphi-diploids. amphikaryon n. Gr. amphi, on both sides karyon, nut The nucleus of the zygote produced in the course of fertilization containing two haploid genomes. see diplokaryon. amphimict n. Gr. amphi, on both sides miktos, mixed Reproduction by amphimixis. amphimixis n. Gr. amphi, on...

Binary nomenclature see binominal nomenclature

L. bini, pair Doubled growing in pairs. binervate a. L. bis, two nervus, nerve Having two nerves or veins. binocular a. L. bini, pair oculus, eye Having two eyes. binodulose a. L. bis, two nodulus, little knot Having two nodes, knobs, or swellings of small size. binomen n. L. bis, two nomen, name The scientific designation of a species, consisting of a generic and a specific name. see binominal nomenclature, trinominal nomenclature. binomial nomenclature A system of nomenclature using...

Pedal levator muscle see pedal retractor muscle

Pedal lobe ARTHRO Insecta A fleshy, bump-like, non-segmented rudimentary leg of a larva. pedal pit MOLL Solengastres A ciliated pit containing secretory cells at the anterior end of the pedal groove. pedal protractor muscle MOLL Bivalvia The muscle that extends the foot. pedal retractor muscle MOLL Bivalvia The muscle attached to the shell that withdraws the foot pedal levator muscle. pedal stridulating organ ARTHRO Insecta In male Hemip-terous Corixidae, the spinose area on the inside of each...

Cordotonal organ see proprioceptor

Cordylus n. pl. cordyli Gr. kordyle, swelling CNID Hydrozoa Small clubs composed of large gastrodermal cells covered by a thin epidermis, mounted on sensory cushions between the tentacle bases of certain hydromedusae sense clubs. core n. L. cordis, heart 1. The central part of anything. 2. BRYO Stenolaemata Either laminated or nonlaminated skeletal material, or a combination of both, that form the corema, corematis n. pl. -ata Gr. korema, broom ARTHRO Insecta Paired eversible sacs of the...