Ostia see ostium

Ostiolar peritreme (ARTHRO Insecta) The ridged, cuticular projections surrounding the ostiole, cresting and being subdivided into several smaller projections with ridges running parallel to the line from each ostiole to the corresponding evaporative cuticle. ostiole, ostiola n. L. ostiolum, little door 1. Any small opening. 2. (ARTHRO Insecta) In Heteroptera, one of paired dorsal abdominal scent gland openings in adults, located near the coxa. ostium n. pl. ostia L. ostium, door 1. Any opening...

Nomen novum see new name

Nomen nudum A published binominal without an adequate description, definition or illustration to permit its official adoption. nomen oblitum No longer in effect in ICZN after 1973 a name that has not been used in the primary zoological literature for 50 years a forgotten name. nomen taxon Any named taxon, objectively defined by its type, whether valid or invalid. nominalism n. L. nomen, name ismus, denoting a condition Doctrine of nominalists denying the existence of universals, and emphasizing...

Preapical gland see phasmid

L. prae, before axis, axle On the anterior border or before the axis. preaxillary excision (ARTHRO Insecta) In hind wings of Hy-menoptera, a second notch of the apex of the first anal fold, just anterior of the first anal vein, in addition to the axillary notch. prebascillary eyes (ARTHRO Chelicerata) In Arachnida, the anterior lateral, posterior lateral and posterior median eyes that have the retinal nuclei in front of the light-sensitive rods. see postbascillary eyes. prebasilare...

Ommatochrome see ommochrome

Gr. omma, eye eidos, form (ARTHRO Chelicer-ata) In some Arachnida, a light colored spot on the posterior body segment. ommatophore n. Gr. omma, eye pherein, to bear (MOLL Gastropoda) A movable process bearing an eye, as in snails may be fused with the tentacles. ommochrome, ommatochrome n. Gr. omma, eye chroma, color A group of pigments, products of tryptophane metabolism, found in eyes and epidermis of certain invertebrates it is apparently not involved in the visual process....

Cuticular sheath see scolopale

L. cuticula, skin (ARTHRO Insecta) A compound material of uncertain chemical nature that forms the epicu-ticle. cuticulin layer 1. (ARTHRO Chelicerata) In mites, the epio-stracum. 2. (ARTHRO Insecta) Layer extending over the surface of the body and over cuticular projections such as bristles and scales as well as epidermal invaginations. cuttle bone (MOLL Cephalopoda) The internal calcified shell remnant of cuttlefish. Cuvierian organs (ECHINOD Holothuroidea) A few, or a tuft of...

Sarothrum see scopa

A.S. sagu, saw (ARTHRO Insecta) a. In Symphyta, transverse ridges provided on the fused 2nd valvulae. b. In Diptera, the anterior serrated plate of the spiracular apparatus of Mansoniini larvae. saw bristles (ARTHRO Crustacea) A heavy row of setae between the molar and incisor process on the gnathal lobe of the mandible. saxicavous a. L. saxum, rock cavus, hollow Said of rock-boring mollusks. saxicolous a. L. saxum, rock colere, to inhabit Living among rocky or stony areas. scabellum n....

Sitophore sclerite see esophageal sclerite

L. situs, place The locality site situation relative position. skeletal duplicature (ARTHRO Crustacea) In some Cephalo-carida, the outer chitinous body covering that is shed during ecdysis. skeleton n. Gr. skeletos, dried, body A hardened frame work of an organism functioning for support and protection of softer parts may be external or internal and solid or jointed. skeletal a. skin n. ON. skinn, skin The cuticle the covering. skin bodies (SIPUN) A group of glandular cells often...

Gnathos see subscaphium

Gr. gnathos, jaw soma, body (ARTHRO Chelicerata) The anterior of two basic regions of the body of a mite or tick bearing the mouth parts a capitulum pseudotagma. gnathostegite n. Gr. gnathos, jaw stegos, roof (ARTHRO Crustacea) One of a pair of plates covering the mouth parts. Gnathostomulida n. Gr. gnathos, jaw stoma, mouth A phylum of microscopic, free-living marine worms that are acoelomate bilateria with a mono-ciliated skin epithelium, jaws and a muscular pharyngeal apparatus...

Hygrotropism see hydrotropism

Gr. hyle, material gamos, marriage The fusion of gametes syngamy. hylophagous a. Gr. hyle, wood phagein, to eat Wood eating, as some insects. hylotomous a. Gr. hyle, wood temnein, to cut Cutting wood, as some insects. hyoid sclerite (ARTHRO Insecta) A small sclerite near the base of the labrum in many cyclorrhaphous flies. hyote spines (MOLL Bivalvia) Variably shaped (founded, ear-shaped), hollow, tubular spines open at their tips and on their flanks, arising from the thin edges of...

Nema curds see nema wool

Gr. nema, thread L. ponere, to place (AR-THRO Insecta) Mock oviposition by insects parasitized by nematodes the insect deposits nematodes instead of their own eggs. Nemata, nematodes n. n.pl. Gr. nema, thread A phylum containing a large, diverse group of free-living, plant and animal parasitic roundworms, covered by cuticle and having well developed nervous, reproductive and digestive systems, but lack true segmentation, a true coelom and jointed appendages formerly called...

Epiploon see caul

Epipodial plate (ARTHRO Crustacea) In Ostracoda, a setaceous respiratory plate on the maxilla or the fifth limb. epipod(ite) n. Gr. epi, upon pous, foot (ARTHRO Crustacea) A laterally directed exite of the protopod, usually branchial in function a laterally directed ramus of the coxa gill separator. see exite. epipodium n. pl. -dia Gr. epi, upon pous, foot (MOLL Gastropoda) Lateral grooves between foot and mantle, with tentacles and integumentary sensory organs, usually flat. epiproct n. Gr....

Accessory genitalia see accessory appendages

A pair of glands opening primarily on the venter or the eighth or ninth abdominal segment of females that secrete an adhesive substance or material forming a cover or case (ootheca) for the eggs. 2. In males, secretion glands opening into the ejaculatory duct. accessory lamellae (MOLL Bivalvia) In Pholadinae, accessory periostracal coverings or shelly plates along the dorsal margin, over the anteroventral pedal gape, or along the posteroventral margin...

Hypodiploid see hypoploid

Gr. hypo, under gaia, the earth 1. Living in the soil endogean. 2. (ARTHRO Insecta) Soil dwellers except for nuptial flight. hypoglossa n. Gr. hypo, under glossa, tongue (ARTHRO Insecta) In brachycerous and cyclorrhaphous Diptera, the dorsal wall of the premental plate, formed by the scle-rotized ventral side of the prementum. hypoglossis n. Gr. hypo, under glossa, tongue (ARTHRO Insecta) The under portion of the tongue. hypoglottis n. Gr. hypo, under glottis, mouth of...

Allotropy see allotropism

Gr. allos, other typos, type A paratype of the opposite sex to the holotype. allozygote n. Gr. allos, other zygotos, yoked A homozygote with only recessive characters. alluring coloration (ARTHRO Insecta) Patterns or colorings adapted by predators that attract other species aggressive mimicry. alluring glands Glandular structures that disperse an odor attractive to the opposite sex sex pheromones. allux n. L. ad, to luxus, dislocated (ARTHRO Insecta) In Cur-culionidae, the next to...

Palp see palpuspalp

L. palpus, feeler (ARTHRO Insecta) The act of touching with labial or maxillary palps serves as sensory probe or tactile signal to another insect. palp foramen (ARTHRO Crustacea) A small opening in the mandibular body. palpifer n. L. palpus, feeler ferre, to carry (ARTHRO Insecta) A small lobe of the maxillary stipes to which the maxillary palpus (palp) articulates. palpiferous a. see palpiger. palpiform a. L. palpus, feeler forma, shape Shaped like a palpus. palpiger n. L. palpus,...

Machopolyp machozooid see dactylozooid

Gr. makros, large aner, male (ARTHRO Insecta) A male ant of unusually large form. macrergate n. Gr. makros, large ergate, worker (ARTHRO Insecta) In Formicidae, an unusually large worker. macrobiota n. Gr. makros, large bios, life Larger organisms in the soil, such as insects and earthworms. see mesobi-ota. macrocephalic female (ARTHRO Insecta) In Hymenoptera, a large female of Halictidae, that possesses a disproportionately large head, usually the egg layers of the colony....

Oedaeagus oedeagus oedoeagus see aedeagus

Gr. oinos, wine kytos, container (ARTHRO Insecta) Large cells in a group on either side of each abdominal segment, between the bases of the epidermal cells and basement membrane, or form clusters in the body cavity or dispersed and embedded in the body fat in immatures, associated with molting, and maybe production of lipids in cuticle or synthesis of ecdysone. oenocytoid n. Gr. oinos, wine kytos, container eidos, form (ARTHRO Insecta) Round or oval cells, with darkly staining...

Mesopeltidium see schizopeltid

Gr. mesos, middle phragma, fence (ARTHRO Insecta) A chitinous piece that descends into the interior of an insect body with the postscutellum as the base. mesoplankton n. Gr. mesos, middle plankton, wandering Floating life below euphotic zone plankton organisms retained by a plankton net. mesoplax n. Gr. mesos, middle plax, plate (MOLL Bivalvia) A calcareous transverse plate straddling the two valves on their dorsal margins. see protoplax, metaplax. mesopleural bristles (ARTHRO...

Filippis glands see Lyonnets glands

L. filum, thread Bands of fibers any raised rib. filose a. L. filum, thread Having a threadlike appendage, or terminating in a threadlike process. filter apparatus (ARTHRO Insecta) Opposing rows of tapering processes of some spiracular atrial walls, clothed with interlacing hairs, that permits passage of air and prevents foreign particles or water from penetrating into the atrium. filter chamber An area that serves to filter suspended matter. filter feeder An animal that feeds on...

Biosystem see ecosystem

Gr. bios, life systema, an ordered arrangement of things The study of the biology of populations in respect to evolution and variation of a taxon experimental taxonomy. biota n. Gr. bios, life The fauna and flora of an area or region. biotic a. Gr. biotikos, of life Of or pertaining to life. biotic insecticide An organism used to suppress a local pest population. biotic potential 1. The reproductive potential of a species. 2. An estimate of the rate of increase of a species in...

Irreversibility rule see Dollos rule

L. irritare, to provoke Ability to receive external impressions and the power to react to them. irritant n. L. irritare, to provoke Any external stimulus that can provoke a response. irrorate a. L. in, not roris, dew Covered with minute marks, colors, or minute grains or specks of color. isauxesis n. Gr. isos, equal auxesis, growth Equality in growth isometry. see bradyauxesis, heterauxesis, tachyauxesis. ischiocerite n. Gr. ischion, hip keras, horn (ARTHRO Crustacea) Third...

Crystalline body see crystalline cone

Crystalline cone (ARTHRO Insecta) The hard, clear intracellular structure of the eucone eye, produced by Semper cells beneath the cornea and bordered laterally by the primary pigment cells also known as vitreous body or crystalline body. see acone eye, pseudocone eye, eucone eye, exocone eye. crystalline style (MOLL Gastropoda Bivalvia) A translucent cylindrical rod in the style sac of the stomach, whirled on its axis by ciliary movement, releasing carbohydrate digesting enzymes. crystalline...

Hydrocyst see dactylozooid

Gr. hydor, water oikos, house (CNID Hydrozoa) A sheath-like extension that protects the zone of the siphonophoran bell from adjacent bells. hydrofuge n. Gr. hydor, water L. fugere, to flee (ARTHRO Insecta) 1. Water repelling hairs. 2. The outer surface of the chorion of eggs, as well as the cuticles, respiratory siphons and hairs. hydroid n. Gr. hydor, water eidos, like (CNID) Polyp of coe-lenterates any member of the Hydroida. hydrolysis n. pl. -es Gr. hydor, water lyein, to...

Ropalocercous cercaria see rhopalocercous cercaria

L. rosa, rose Having a quality of a rose, such as color or scent. rosette plate (BRYO Gymnolaemata) In Cheilostomata, multi-porous, subcuticular area in the verticle walls for passage of fibers between zooids multiporous septulum. rosettes n.pl. L. dim. rosa, rose 1. A process resembling a rose in shape, applied to organs or markings of many invertebrates. 2. (BRYO) The clubbed-shaped cells of the funicular system (communication organs). 3. (ECHINOD) Five large ossicles that...

Propodeon see propodeum

Gr. pro, before podeon, neck (ARTHRO In-secta) 1. In apocrite Hymenoptera the fused first abdominal segment median segment propodeon also used. see alitrunk. 2. For Formicidae, a synonym for epinotum. propodite n. Gr. pro, before pous, foot -ites, part (ARTHRO) 1. The next to last segment of a generalized limb. 2. (ARTHRO Insecta) The tarsus. 3. (ARTHRO Crustacea) see propodus. propodium n. Gr. pro, before pous, foot (MOLL Gastropoda) The foremost divison of the foot, functioning...

International Code of Zoological Nomenclature ICZN

The official set of regulations and recommendations dealing with zoological nomenclature. interneuron n. L. inter, between Gr. neuron, nerve Inter-nuncial neuron or association neuron. internode n. L. inter, between nodus, swelling 1. The interval or part between two nodes or joints. 2. (BRYO) That segment of a jointed colony between surfaces of articulation. 3. (CNID Hydrozoa) A small repeated section of the stem or hydrocladium separated by a constriction of the perisarc. internum n. L....

Nephridiostome see nephrostome

Nephridium n. pl. -ia Gr. dim. nephros, kidney L. ium, nature of 1. In various invertebrates, simple or branched, tubular structures that function in excretion, opening to the outside through a nephridiopore. see protonephridium, metanephridium. 2. (ANN Oligochaeta) A segment essentially composed of excretory tubules that may discharge directly onto the body surface, or lead to a sinus discharging to the exterior through pores by the setal ring. 3. (ECHI) One to many organs used for the...

Pleurepimere see epimere

Gr. pleuron, side ergate, worker (ARTHRO Insecta) In Formicidae, a worker capable of ingesting liquid food into its gaster until it becomes a spherical sac. pleurite n. Gr. pleuron, side -ites, nature of (ARTHRO) A lateral sclerite of a somite for crustaceans see epimere. pleurobranch n. Gr. pleuron, side branchia, gills (ARTHRO Crustacea) In Decapoda, a gill attached directly to the body wall pleurobranchia. pleurolophocercous cercaria (PLATY Trematoda) A gymno-cephalous type...

Proepistome see interantennular septum

L. pro, before filum, outline An outline as seen from the side or lateral view. profundal region In deep lakes from limnetic zone to bottom. profuse a. L. profusus, abundant Abundant. progenesis n. Gr. pro, before genesis, origin 1. Retention of juvenile characters by precocious, sexually mature morphologically juvenile stage. see paedogenesis. 2. (platy Trematoda) Larval reproduction. progenital a. L. pro, before gignere, to beget (ARTHRO Chelicerata) In Acari, referring to the area...

Abdominal filament see cercus

Abdominal ganglia (ARTHRO) Ganglia of the ventral nerve cord that innervate the abdomen, each giving off a pair of principal nerves to the muscles of the segment located between the alimentary canal and the large ventral muscles. abdominal process (ARTHRO Crustacea) In Branchiopoda, fingerlike projections on the dorsal surface of the abdomen. abdominal somite (ARTHRO Crustacea) Any single division of the body between the thorax and telson a pleomere a pleonite. abduce v. L. abducere, to lead...

Oligogyral see paucispiral

Oligolecithal egg An egg with a small amount of yolk isolecithal. see centrolecithal egg, telolecithal egg. oligolectic a. Gr. oligos, few lektos, chosen (ARTHRO Insecta) Selecting only a few, as bees collecting pollen from only a few kinds of flowers oligotropic. oligomerous a. Gr. oligos, few meros, part Having fewer parts or organs than other related forms. oligomery n. oligonephria a. Gr. oligos, few nephros, kidney Having few excretory tubules. oligoneura a. Gr. oligos, few neuron, nerve...

Female encystment see matricidal hatching

Female funnel (ANN Oligochaeta) Enlargement of the ental end of an oviduct of earthworms that facilitates entry of the ova on their way to the exterior. female pores (ANN Oligochaeta) The external apertures of the female ducts of earthworms. femoro-alary organs (ARTHRO Insecta) A stridulatory apparatus. femorogenu n. L. femur, thigh genu, knee (ARTHRO Cheli-cerata) In mites, a leg segment resulting from the fusion of the femur and genu. femorotibial joint (ARTHRO) One of the two primary...

Frontoclypeal sulcus or suture see epistomal suture

L. frons, forehead clypeus, shield (ARTHRO Insecta) The line (sulcus or suture) between the combined clypeus and frons which is not externally visible. frontoclypeal a. frontogenal suture (ARTHRO Insecta) A more or less vertical suture on the front of the head, between the frons and the gena. see subantennal suture. frontolateral horn (ARTHRO Crustacea) In Cirripedia nauplii, a pair of tubular frontolateral extensions of cuticle. fronto-orbital bristles (ARTHRO Insecta) In...

Areole see areola

L. dim. area, small open space (ARTHRO Insecta) A small cell in a wing. argentaffin a. L. argentum, silver affinis, related Of or pertaining to the taking of a silver stain an argyrophil. argentaffin(e) cell Any cell that stains readily by silver techniques. argenteous a. L. argentum, silver Silver-like, silvery, white, shinning. argentophilic cells (ARTHRO Insecta) In aquatic larvae, specialized cells for ion uptake in the anal papillae or rectal gill. argillaceous a. L. argilla,...

Hypomeron see hypomere

Gr. hypo, under morphe, form An allele that functions more weakly when compared with wild-type al-leles a leaky gene. hyponeural a. Gr. hypo, under neuron, nerve (ECHINOD) Part of the nervous system deeper and more weakly developed than the ectoneural system. hyponeuston n. Gr. hypo, under neustos, swimming Any organism that swims or floats near the surface of the water. hyponome n. Gr. hyponome, tunnel (MOLL Cephalopoda) A ventral funnel consisting of two unfused lappetlike folds...

Sexual pore see gonopore

Sexual reproduction Reproduction involving the fusion of two cells (gamete nuclei), resulting from meiosis. sexual zooid (bryo) a. In Gymnolaemata, autozooid in which sex cells develop, may or may not show skeletal modification. b. In Cheilostomata, it may loose the feeding ability. sexupara n. pl. -ae L. sexus, sex parere, to bear 1. Production of male and female offspring by parthenogenesis then available for sexual reproduction. 2. (ARTHRO Insecta) The later generation of parthenogenetic...

Hind angle see anal angle

A.S. hindan gut The posterior ectodermal portion of the alimentary tract (canal) between the mid-gut hind head (ARTHRO Insecta) In Mallophaga, behind the mandibles and antennae. hindunguis n. A.S. hindan L. unguis, claw (ARTHRO Insecta) In mosquitoes, the posterior unguis of one of the hindlegs. hinge n. ME. heng, hinge 1. The point of articulation of a moveable joint. 2. (ARTHRO Insecta) The maxilla, cardo in mosquitoes, between the upper and lower vaginal lips. 3. (MOLL Bivalvia)...

Pupal respiratory horn see respiratory horn

Pupa nuda (ARTHRO Insecta) An insect pupa free from attachment. pupa obtect (ARTHRO Insecta) An adecticous pupa in which the appendages are more or less strongly cemented to the body, assumed by tanning of protein in the molting fluid pupa obtecta. pupariation n. L. pupa, puppet (ARTHRO Insecta) In certain families of Diptera, formation of a puparium by a third stage, nonfeeding larva a post-feeding larva. puparium n. L. pupa, puppet (ARTHRO Insecta) 1. In certain families of Diptera, a case...

Clearzone eye see superposition eye

A.S. cleophian, split The process by which the division of the egg cell gives rise to all the cells of the organism. cleavage cells The cells formed during cleavage a blas-tomere. cleavage nucleus 1. The nucleus of a fertilized egg cell or zygote. 2. The nucleus of egg cells that develop parthenoge-netically. cleft a. A.S. cleofian, split Split or forked. cleidoic a. Gr. kleis, bar oion, egg Pertaining to an egg enclosed within a shell or membrane that is permeable only to gasses....

Oolemma see vitelline membrane

Gr. oion, egg phagein, to eat 1. The eating of eggs egg cannibalism. 2. (ARTHRO Insecta) In social insects, eating its own or nestmate's eggs. oophore n. Gr. oion, egg phoreus, carrier (ANN Oli-gochaeta) The egg case or capsule. ooplasm n. Gr. oion, egg plasma, formed or molded The cytoplasm of an egg. oopod n. Gr. oion, egg pous, foot (ARTHRO Insecta) A component part of a sting or ovipositor. oosperm n. Gr. oion, egg sperma, seed A fertilized ovum a zygote an ooblastema. oosphere...

Dithra see Bivalvia

Gr. dis, twice trochis, runner (ARTHRO Insecta) Pertaining to Hymenoptera having a two-segmented trochanter. diuresis a. Gr. dia, through ouron, urine Pertaining to urine excretion in excess of the usual amount, directly referable to drinking, eating or certain metabolites. diurnal a. L. diurnus, of the day Pertaining to animals active only during the daytime. see nocturnal, crepuscular. diurnal eyes (ARTHRO Chelicerata) In spiders, eyes that are dark in color. diurnal rhythm...

Supratympanal organ see subgenual organ

L. supra, above anus Above the anus supraanal. suranal plate (ARTHRO Insecta) A heavily sclerotized area on the dorsum of the last abdominal segment a plate or lobe dorsad of the anus epiproct anal plate. see ectoproct. surface ornamentation (MOLL Bivalvia) A regular relief pattern on the surface of many shells. surface pheromone A pheromone active only on or very close to the body contact or near contact must be made. surface tension Surface film on liquids caused by cohesion of the...

Kation see cation

Keber's valve (MOLL Bivalvia) Pericardinal gland, connecting the pedal and visceral hemocoels. keel n. A.S. ceol, ship 1. A prominent ridge or carina. 2. (bryo) a. In Stenolaemata, a flat median portion of the zo-oidal wall between sinuses in recumbent part of endozone or as a synonym of carina. b. In Phylactolaemata, a median longitudinal ridge along recumbent tubular colony parts. 3. (MOLL Gastropoda) A spiral ridge usually marking a change of slope in the outline of the shell. Keferstein...

Temporal organs see organs of Tomosvary

Temporary haplometrosis (ARTHRO Insecta) In early colony development of social insects, a single female (queen) initiates development and is either joined by its offspring or females from other colonies, producing a pleometrotic society. see functional haplometrosis, permanent haplometrosis. temporary parasite A parasite that comes in contact with its host to feed and then departs intermittent parasite mi-cropredator. temporary pleometrosis (ARTHRO Insecta) In social insects, a colony in which...

Holoic see meganephridia

Gr. holos, whole metabole, change Dominant superorder of insects, distributed worldwide, that includes the vast majority of insect families, genera and species with complete metamorphosis and wing pads formed by invagination in some classifications Endopterygota. holometabolous metamorphosis (ARTHRO Insecta) Metamorphosis with a larva, pupa and adult complete metamorphosis. see paurometabolous. holomyarian a. Gr. holos, whole mys, muscle (NEMATA) Describing the longitudinal...

Rhizocaul rhizocaulome see hydrocaulus

Gr. rhiza, root klados, branch (PORIF) A megas-clere desma with rootlike processes rhizoclone rhizoid n. Gr. rhiza, root eidos, like (BRYO) A rootlike structure composed of one or more kenozooids. rhizoid spines (BRACHIO) Spines that serve to attach the animal, either by entanglement or by cementing themselves to a foreign surface. rhizome n. Gr. rhiza, root (CNID Hydrozoa) The stolon the rhizomorphous a. Gr. rhiza, root morphos, form Root-like. rhizophagous a. Gr. rhiza, root...

Colletocystophore see rhopalium

Colliculum n. pl. colliculi L. dim. collis, hill A small elevation. colliculate, colliculose a. colligate v.t. L. cum, with ligare, to bind To tie or bind together. colligation n. L. cum, with ligare, to bind The combining together of isolated facts. colloblast n. Gr. kolla, glue blastos, bud (CTENO) Adhesive cells sticky cells covering much of the surface of the tentacles that are used to capture and ingest prey. collophore n. Gr. kolla, glue phoreus, bearer (ARTHRO Insecta) In Collembola, a...

Automorphic see idiomorphic

Gr. autos, self L. mutare, to change Gr. gennaein, to produce Any mutagen produced in an organism as a normal or abnormal metabolite that may induce gene and chromosome mutations. autonomic a. Gr. autos, self nomos, usage Functioning due to internal causes self-regulation spontaneous. autonomous a. see choronomic. autoparasite n. Gr. autos, self parasitos, parasite A parasite existing at the expense of another parasite. autopelagic a. Gr. autos, self pelagios, of the sea...

Ligular lobe see ligula

L. ligula, little tongue Strap shaped. ligule n. L. ligula, little tongue (ANN Polychaeta) A parapo-dial lobe covering the anus dorsally. limacel n. pl. -le F., fr. L. limax, slug (MOLL Gastropoda) The concealed vestigial shell of slugs. limaciform a. L. limax, slug forma, shape Shaped like a slug. limb n. A.S. lim, limb The leg or wing of an animal. limb n. L. limbus, an edge The border, rim or edge. limbate a. L. limbus, an edge 1. Having a margin or limb of another color. 2....

Clasp filament see dististylus

Clasping apparatus (ARTHRO Crustacea) A movable, heavily sclerotized sclerite of male ostracods, that articulates with the midportion of the peniferum in a socket near the ventral cardo and the loop of the spermatic tube probably a tactile organ. class n. L. classis, division A taxonomic group used in classification of organisms into which a phylum or division is divided, and which in turn is subdivided into orders. classical taxonomy A taxonomic method incorporating the uses of morphological,...

Pseudonymph semipupa see prepupa

Pseudo-osculum n. pl. -ula Gr. pseudos, false L. osculum, small mouth (PORIF) The exterior opening of the pseu-dogaster a pseudostoma. pseudopallium n. Gr. pseudos, false L. pallium, mantle (MOLL Gastropoda) In some parasites of Echinoderms, a ring-like fold of the anterior part of the snail growing over the visceral mass and serving as a brood chamber. pseudopenis n. Gr. pseudos, false L. penis, male copulatory organ (ANN Oligochaeta) The eversible area of the body wall or atrium tip....

Apisthognathous see opisthognathous

L. apis, honeybee Gr. toxikon, poison The main toxic constituent of bee venom. apivorous a. L. apis, honeybee vorare, devour Refers to feeding on bees. aplasia n. Gr. an, without plasma, formed or molded 1. The entire failure of organs or tissue to develop. 2. Incomplete or faulty development. aplastic a. see agenesis. apneumone n. Gr. an, without pneuma, air A substance emitted by a nonliving material that envokes a behavioral or physiological reaction favorable to the receiving...

Distacalypteron see antisquama

L. distare, to stand apart Away from the body, or from point of attachment toward the end farthest from the body. distadentes n.pl. L. distare, to stand apart dentis, tooth The dentes distad on the mandible. distal a. L. distare, to stand apart Pertaining to any part of a structure farthest from midline of the body or base of attachment opposed to proximal. distal bud (BRYO Gymnolaemata) The bud arising from the distal side of the vertical wall of the parent zooid. see basal bud....

Nassanoffs gland see Nassanovs gland

Nassanov's gland (ARTHRO Insecta) In Apis, a gland opening to the exterior beneath abdominal tergites six and seven, that function in pheromone production well developed in workers, but absent in drones and maybe queens. nasus n. L. nasus, nose (ARTHRO Insecta) 1. The clypeal region the drawn-out foreward part of the face. 2. In Isop-tera, the snout-like frontal projection that functions to eject poisonous or sticky fluids at intruders. nasute n. L. nasus, nose (ARTHRO Insecta) A type of...

Cell membrane see plasma membrane

Cell organ A differentiated part of a cell that has a special function, such as a centrosome, organoid, or organelle. cells of Semper (ARTHRO Insecta) The cells of the crystalline eye cone, whose intercellular membranes form a cruciform pattern when the cone is seen in transverse section. cell theory All organisms are composed of cell(s) a cell is the smallest unit of matter that is alive (functional unit) proposed by Schwann for animals in 1838-40 cells are the reproductive units of all...

Uterine vagina see vagina uterina

L. uterus, womb An enlargement of the lower end of the oviduct, in which eggs are retained temporarily or in which the embryo develops. uterine a. utricle n. L. dim. uter, bag A small bag or bladder. utriculus n. L. dim. uter, bag (ARTHRO Insecta) In Lepidop-tera, the larger lobe of the spermatheca may be fused into one organ. see lagena. uvette n. L. dim. uva, grape (nemata Adenophorea) The glandular region where the efferent tubes of the Demanian vessels meet before passing on to...

Ecdysial glands see prothoracic glands

Ecdysial membrane (ARTHRO Insecta) A thin membrane formed from the lateral lamellae of the old procuticle that is tanned by the polyphenols and phenoloxidase associated with the new outer epicuticle during molting. ecdysial tube (ARTHRO Insecta) In some Diptera and Coleop- tera, a simple cuticular tube formed around the old spiracle and through which the old spiracle and trachea are pulled during molting. ecdysis n., pl. -ses Gr. ekdysis, getting out of Molting, the process of shedding cuticle...

Sempers cells see cells of Semper

Semper's larva (CNID Anthozoa) In Zoantharia, pelagic larva with long cilia. Semper's rib (ARTHRO Insecta) In Lepidoptera, a degenerate trachea present in the wing, alongside a functioning trachea within the vein cavity. senescence n. L. senescere, to grow old The gradual deterioration of function in an organism leading to an increased probability of death the ageing process. senility n. L. senex, old Old age. senior homonym The earliest published of two or more identical names for the same or...

Styloconic sensilla see sensillum styloconicum

Gr. stylos, pillar eidos, like (ANN Polychaeta) A small, longer than wide, projection on the parapodium. styloid a. Gr. stylos, pillar eidos, like Long and slender be-lonoid aciform. stylopization n. Gr. stylos, pillar ops, eye (ARTHRO Insecta) The endoparasitism by the coleopterous female Strepsip-tera (Stylops), of other insects stylopized. stylose a. Gr. stylos, pillar Bearing a style or several styli. stylostome n. Gr. stylos, pillar stoma, mouth (ARTHRO Chelicerata) In acarid...

Antennal scale see scaphocerite

Antennal sclerite (ARTHRO Insecta) The sclerotic rim of the basal antennal socket. see annulus antennalis. antennal segment (ARTHRO) That segment of an arthropod head from which the antennae arise, usually second segment deuterocerebral segment. antennal spine (ARTHRO Crustacea) A decapod spine situated on the anterior margin of the carapace, slightly below the antennal support (ARTHRO Insecta) In Coleoptera, ring-shaped cranial projections of scarab larvae, to which the antennae are appended...

Seleniform cell see plasmatocytes

Gr. selene, moon zone, girdle (MOLL Gastropoda) In dibranchiates, a spiral band of crescentric growth lines or threads (lunulae) on the shell surface due to the semicircular end of a notch or slit on the outer lip a slit band corresponds to the anal fasciole of some other groups. self-cleansing (MOLL Bivalvia) Removal and ejection of pseudofeces. self-fertilization The union of gametes derived from the same individual autogamy automixis. see cross-fertilization. self-sedimentation...

Pangamy see panmixia

Gr. pan, all genesis, origin Darwin's pre-genetic hypothesis that somatic cells contain particles influenced by the environment that can move to the sex cells and influence heredity. panmixia, panmixy n. Gr. pan, all mixis, a mixing Random interbreeding in a population nonselective breeding. pan-mictic a. panoistic ovariole Ovarioles that have no specialized nurse cells and are of a primitive type germ cells occurring without interruption from one end to the other panoistic egg...

Spermalege see ectospermalege mesospermalege Ribagas organ

Gr. sperma, seed The male gonad, in which the sperm cells are produced. spermatangium n. Gr. sperma, seed angon, jar (MOLL Cephalopoda) Evaginated spermatophores ready to release sperm sperm sacs sperm bladders sperm bulbs. spermateleosis n. Gr. sperma, seed teleiosis, completion Spermiogenesis. spermatheca n. pl. -ae Gr. sperma, seed theke, case A saccate genital structure in female invertebrates in which sperm from the male is received and may or may not be stored...

Onychii see pulvilli

Onychium n. pl. -ia Gr. onyx, claw (ARTHRO Insecta) A general term for a pad between the tarsal claws. Onychophora, onychophorans n. n.pl. Gr. onyx, claw phorein, to carry A phylum of terrestrial animals comprised of a single class or order of the same name, frequently referred to as Peripatus once considered to be the missing link between annelids and arthropods, but now considered to be the sister group of the arthropod complex of Crustacea, Tracheata, and Chelicerata. ooblast n. Gr. oion,...

Chlorogogue see chloragogen cells

Gr. chloros, yellow-green phyllon, leaf The green pigment of plants and certain protozoa and bacteria, involved in photosynthesis. choana n. pl. -ae Gr. choane, funnel Funnel-shaped. choanocyte n. Gr. choane, funnel kytos, container (PORIF) A flagellate cell crowned by a collar of cytoplasmic tentacles that generates currents of water a collar cell. choanocyte chamber (PORIF) A cavity enclosed by a group of choanocytes. choanoderm n. Gr. choane, funnel derma, skin (PORIF) Any...

Homothermis see homoiothermal

Homotrichous anisorhiza (CNID) A nematocyst open at the tip with a slightly swollen base, and with spines of equal length along the thread. homotype n. Gr. homos, same typos, type A structure corresponding to a structure on the opposite side of the body reverse symmetry homeotype. see enantiomorphic. homotypic a. Gr. homos, same typos, type 1. Pertaining to the second meiotic division (meiosis). 2. Exhibiting homo-typy. homotypy n. Gr. homos, same typos, type The similarity or equality of body...

Inductor see organizer

L. inductura, a coating (MOLL Gastropoda) Smooth shelly layer of the shell secreted by the mantle, extending from the inner side of the aperture over the parietal region, columellar lip, and part or all of the shell exterior. indumentum n. L. indumentum, garment Covered by hairs, scales or tufts. indurate a. L. induratare, to make hard Hardened. indusium n. pl. -sia L. indusium, tunic (ARTHRO Insecta) 1. A larva casing. 2. The third covering of embryonic membrane formed from a...

Scent pore see ostiole

Scent scales (ARTHRO Insecta) Scales distinguished from clothing scales by their extreme length, sometimes called hairs. see androconia. sceptrules n. Gr. dim. skeptron, royal staff (PORIF Sclero-spongiae) Microscleric monactinal triaxonic spicules that include clavules with terminal umbels or smooth heads. schemochrome n. Gr. schema, shape chroma, color (ARTHRO Insecta) Colors produced by physical or structural surfaces, devoid of pigment, as the iridescent colors of a schistosomula n. pl....

Athericerous see aristate

Gr. a, without thermos, hot biosis, manner of life 1. Dormancy induced by low temperatures in relation to an organism. 2. The process of waste elimination during a resting stage at low temperature. athrocyte n. Gr. athroos, collected kytos, container A sessile type of coelomocyte, phagocytic in function. athrocytosis n. Gr. athroos, collected kytos, container The ability of cells to absorb and retain particles in suspension. atmosphere n. Gr. atmos, vapor sphaira, ball 1. The...

Verrills organ see funnel organ

Verruca n. pl. verrucae L. verruca, wart 1. A wart or wartlike prominence. 2. (ARTHRO Chelicerata) In certain Acari, a genital papilla, sternal prominence, or the genital capsule. 3. (ARTHRO Insecta) In Lepidoptera larvae, a tubercle bearing tufts of setae. 4. (CNID Anthozoa) a. In Alcyonaria, a protuberance surrounding the base of polyps. b. In Ac-tiniaria, wart-like prominences on the body wall. verruciform cells (MESO) Somatic cells enlarged by lipoprotein bodies. verrucose a. L. verruca,...

Plasmalemma see plasma membrane

Plasma membrane A unit membrane surrounding the cell's protoplasm cell membrane plasmalemma. plasmatocytes n.pl. Gr. plasma, formed or molded kytos, container Small to large polymorphic hemocytes with a round to elongate nucleus and with either homogeneous or finely granular or finely vacuolated cytoplasm. plasmid n. Gr. plasma, formed or molded eidos, like DNA molecules that are not attached to a chromosome but are inherited regularly. plasmon n. Gr. plasma, formed or molded All...

Calyoptis larva see calyptopis stage

Gr. kalypto, cover (ARTHRO Insecta) In Diptera, small membranous lobes or disk-like structures at the base of the wing, just above the halter. see alula squama. calyptoblastic a. Gr. kalyptos, covered blastos, bud (CNID Hydrozoa) Pertains to hydranths in which the gonophores are commonly borne singly or multiply on stalked blas-tostyles that are encased in peridermal gonothecae. calyptobranchiate a. Gr. kalyptos, covered branchia, gills Bearing gills imperceptible from the...

Cryptodicyclic see pseudomonocyclic

Cryptodont shell (MOLL Bivalvia) In some groups of early origin, refers to lack of hinge teeth. see ctenodont shell. cryptogastra a. Gr. kryptos, hidden gaster, stomach Having the venter or belly covered or concealed. see gymnogas-tra. cryptogene a. Gr. kryptos, hidden genos, beginning Of unknown descent. cryptogram n. Gr. kryptos, hidden gramma, written character Method that expresses in a standard code form a collection of data used in classification. cryptogyne n. Gr. kryptos, hidden gyne,...

Coeloblast see hypoblast

Coeloblastula n. pl. -lae Gr. koilos, hollow blastos, bud 1. A hollow blastula a blastula without qualification. 2. (PO-RIF Calcarea) The simple type of blastula larva found in Calcinia . coeloconoid a. Gr. koilos, hollow konos, cone eidos, form Approaching conical but with concave sides extraconic. see conoid, cyrtoconoid. coelogastrula n. Gr. koilos, hollow gaster, stomach A gas-trula derived from a coeloblastula. coelom n. Gr. koilos, hollow The body cavity or space between the body wall and...

Propus see propodite

Gr. pro, before rhabdion, little rod (NEMATA) The wall of the prostome. see rhabdion. prosartema n. Gr. pros, forward artema, earring (ARTHRO Crustacea) In Decapoda, a row of dense setae on the inner margin of the basal segment of the antennular peduncle also called eye brush. proscolex n. Gr. pro, before skolex, worm (PLATY Cestoda) The anterior part of a divided scolex. prosiphonate lining (PORIF Calcarea) In recent Sphinctozoa, the lining of the atrial cavity of one chamber...

Connector neurone see association neuron

Connexiva n. pl. sing. -vum L. connexus, join (ARTHRO Insecta) The lateral flanges (laterotergites or paratergites) of the abdomen, where the ventral plates are attached to the main tergal plates. see pulmonarium. connivent a. L. connivere, to close the eyes Converging or coming close together arching inward so the points meet. conoid a. Gr. konos, cone eidos, form Having the form of a cone conoidal. see cyrtoconoid, coeloconoid. conotheca n. Gr. konos, cone theke, case (MOLL Cephalopoda) The...

Diactine see diactinal monaxon

Gr. dis, twice triaina, trident (PORIF) A form of tri-aene produced by loss of one ray from the cladome. diaeresis n. Gr. diairein, to divide (ARTHRO Crustacea) A transverse groove on the posterior part of an exopod (rarely endopod) of a uropod appendage occasionally dividing the exopod into two movable parts. diagenodont teeth (MOLL Bivalvia) Having differentiated cardinal teeth (up to 3) and lateral teeth (up to 2) on the hinge plate. diagnosis n. pl. -noses Gr. diagignoskein, to...

Retrofection see autoinfection

L. retro, backwards flectere, to bend Bending in different directions bent or turned backwards. retrogressive development Developmental trend in evolution resulting in simplification of an organism, usually through the complete or partial loss of one or more structures regressive development. retrorse a. L. retrorsus, turned or bent backwards Turned, bent, or directed backward backward projecting. see an-trorse, detrorse. retrovesicular ganglion (NEMATA) The largest ganglion,...

Oral spear see stomatostyle odontostyle

Oral styles (KINOR) Spines arranged in a series around the mouth cone. oral surface (ECHINOD Asteroidea) The entire undersurface of the disc and arms. oral tentacles (moll) Tentacle-like outgrowths of the lip. oral valve (ECHINOD Crinoidea) One of 5 low triangular flaps separating the ambulacral grooves. oral vibrissae (ARTHRO Insecta) In certain Diptera, a pair of stout bristles or hairs on each side of the face, near or above the oral margin larger than those on the vibrissal ridge. orb n. L....

Monometrosis see haplometrosis

Gr. monos, one L. nomen, name Having one name or designation consisting of one term only unino-mial. see binomial. monomorphic colony (BRYO) A colony in which only one kind of zooid occurs in the zone of asexual reproduction. monomorphic polypides (BRYO Phylactolaemata) One morphologic type of organ system in an asexual budding zone. monomorphic zooids (BRYO Gymnolaemata) Zooids of one morphologic type in the zone of astrogenetic repetition. monomorphism n. Gr. monos, one morphe,...

Micronucleocytes see plasmatocytes

Gr. mikros, small organon, instrument A microscopic organism such as most nematodes, rotifers, etc. micropaleontology n. Gr. mikros, small palaios, ancient logos, discourse The study of microscopic fossils. microphagous a. Gr. mikros, small phagein, to eat Feeding on small objects. see macrophagous. microphthalmy n. Gr. mikros, small ophthalmos, eye An abnormally small antenna. microphthalmic a. microplankton n. Gr. mikros, small plankton, wandering Small organisms floating in...

Cupola organ see sensillum campaniformium

L. cupreus, of copper Copper colored, coppery. cupula n. pl. -ae L. dim. cupula, tub (MOLL Cephalopoda) The functional unit of the sensory nerves of the cristae in dibranchiates. cupulate a. L. dim. cupula, tub Cup-shaped bearing a cupule. cupule n. L. dim. cupula, tub A small sucker or acetabulum of various invertebrates. cupuliform a. L. cupula, tub forma, shape Cup-shaped cy-athiform. curculionids n.pl. L. curculio, weevil (ARTHRO Insecta) U- or C-shaped larvae with a distinct...

Zoaea see zoea

Gr. zoon, animal dim. anthos, flower (CNID Anthozoa) An elongate larval form of Zoanthinaria with a ventral band of very long cilia. see zoanthina, Semper's larva. zoanthina n. Gr. zoon, animal dim. anthos, flower (CNID Anthozoa) An oval larval form of Zoanthinaria with a girdle of long cilia near the oral pole. see zoanthella, Semper's larva. zoarium n. Gr. zoon, animal -arium, belonging to (BRYO) A colony. zoea, zooea, zoaea n. Gr. zoe, life A larval stage in the development of...

Metaepisternum see metepisternum

Gr. meta, after L. eruca, caterpillar (ARTHRO Insecta) Poisoning by larval setae on cocoons, etc. see lepidopterism. metafemale n. Gr. meta, after L. femella, little woman (ARTHRO Insecta) In Diptera, an individual with 3 X-chromo-somes and 2 sets of autosomes found in Drosophila. metagastric lobe or area (ARTHRO Crustacea) In Decapoda, the posterior division of the gastric region of the carapace sometimes ill-defined. metagenesis n. Gr. meta, after genesis, beginning Alternation...

Holonephridia see meganephridia

Gr. holos, whole para, near lektos, choose typos, type Any specimen from the original material that is later established as a paratype, it must be of the same sex described by the author. holoparasite n. Gr. holos, whole parasitos, parasite An obligate parasite. holophyletic a. Gr. holos, whole phyle, tribe Denoting a monophyletic group that contains all of the descendants of the most recent common ancestor of that group. see mo-nophyletic.

Glands of Morren see calciferous glands

Gland spines (ARTHRO Insecta) In Diaspidinae, small to large spines that are conical, bifid, or somewhat fimbriate at the tip and have one or more ducts that extend to the tip of the spine pectines plates squamae. gland tubercules (ARTHRO Insecta) In Diaspidinae, a gland spine that is short, basally swollen and sclerotized. glanduba n. pl. -ae L. dim. glans, acorn (ARTHRO Insecta) In Hymenoptera, chitinized ring openings of the cutaneous wax glands found in most sawfly larvae. glandulae...

Posterior cephalic foramen see foramen magnum

Posterior cribellum (ARTHRO Chelicerata) In Arachnida, the posterolateral spinnerets in Stenochilidae. posterior cross vein (ARTHRO Insecta) In Diptera, a wing cross vein at the apex of the discal cell. posterior flange (MOLL Bivalvia) In oysters, the flange posterior to the left valve separated from the main body of the valve by the posterior radial groove. posterior gastric pit (ARTHRO Crustacea) In Decapoda, one of two small dorsal depressions midline on the exterior of carapace identifying...

Tone see tonus

Tonic muscle (MOLL Bivalvia) White, opalescent part of the adductor muscle that reacts slowly, but can hold for long periods of time catch muscle. tonofibrillae n.pl Gr. tonos, stretching L. dim. fibra, fiber Fine connective fibrils extending from the ends of the skeletal muscles into the cuticle. tonus, tone n. Gr. tonos, stretching 1. The normal, maintained nerve impulse traffic. 2. The normal prolonged steady contracture of muscle fibers. tonic a. topochemical sense The sense of smell....

Cervical suture see cervical groove

Cervical vesicle (NEMATA) Distended cuticle anterior to the cervical groove. cerviculate a. L. cervix, neck Having a long neck or neck-like portion. cervicum n. L. cervix, neck (ARTHRO) The neck region. cervinus a. L. cervinus, deer Reddish, deer-gray. cervix n. pl. cervices L. cervix, neck 1. The neck or necklike part. 2. A constriction of the mouth of an organ. 3. (ARTHRO Chelicerata) In Acariformes, the dorsal part of the infracapitulum, between the line of attachment of the cheli-ceral...

Postpeltidium see schizopeltid

L. post, after petiolus, little leg (ARTHRO Insecta) 1. In Formicidae, the second segment of a two-segmented pedicel. 2. In Ichneumonidae, where the petiole (first body segment) abruptly broadens near the spiracles. postphragma n. L. post, after Gr. phragma, fence (ARTHRO Insecta) 1. Internal plates developed from the antecostal ridges at the front and back of the mesothorax and the back of the metathorax that provide attachment for the large longitudinal muscles moving the...

Leptiform see campodeiform larva

Gr. leptos, thin blastos, bud (BRYO) A floato-blast that quickly germinates after release from the parent colony. leptoderan a. Gr. leptos, thin deras, hide, leather (NEMATA) With caudal alae restricted to two sides of the body and not surrounding or meeting posterior to the tail tip. see pelod-eran. leptonema n. Gr. leptos, thin nema, thread A chromatin thread or chromosome at leptotene stage of prophase I in meiosis sometimes used as a synonym of leptotene stage. see leptotene....

Caudal sympathetic system see stomogastric nervous system

Caudal vesicle (ARTHRO Insecta) In braconid larvae, the hind-gut everted through the anus forming a vesicle responsible for about one third of the total gaseous exchange. caudate a. L. cauda, tail 1. Bearing a tail or tail-like appendage. 2. (MOLL) Having the columella of a univalve shell elongated at the base. caudocephalad adv. L. cauda, tail Gr. kephale, head Directed toward the head from the caudal region. caudula n. pl. -lae L. dim. cauda, tail A little tail. caul n. L. caulis, stalk...

Strata pl of stratum

L. stratum, a cover ficare, to make Act or process of being made up of layers. stratum n. pl. -ta L. stratum, a cover 1. A layer of tissue or cells that compose an organ. 2. A group of organisms inhabiting a particular geographical area. 3. A layer of vegetation, usually at the same stage of development. 4. A layer of sedimentary rock or earth. strepsilaematous a. Gr. strepsis, twisting laimos, throat Having a pharynx rotated along its length. see euthylae-matous. streptasters...

Androgynous see hermaphrodite

Gr. aner, male gyne, woman Having male organs develop before female during maturation protan-drous hermaphrodite. android n. Gr. aner, male Resembling a male. androsperm n. Gr. aner, male sperma, seed A male-producing spermatozoan containing a Y-chromosome, limited androsynhesmia n. Gr. aner, male syn, with hesmos, swarm A group of males gathered together during mating season. see synhesmia, gynosynhesmia. androtype n. Gr. aner, male typos, type The male type specimen of a species....

Oligoneuroptera Oligoneoptera see Endopterygota

Gr. oligos, few phagein, to eat Feeding on only a few species of food plants. see monophagous. oligophyletic a. Gr. oligos, few phyle, tribe Derived from a few ancestral forms. see monophyletic. oligopneustic a. Gr. oligos, few pneustikos, of breathing (ARTHRO Insecta) Having one or two functional spiracles on each side, including the amphipneustic, metapneustic and propneustic. oligopod n. Gr. oligos, few pous, foot 1. Bearing few legs. 2. Having fully developed thoracic legs....

Rostel see rostellum

L. rostellum, small beak forma, shape Shaped like a rostellum. rostellum, rostel n. L. rostellum, small beak 1. A small beak or rostrum. 2. (ARTHRO Insecta) The tubular piercing and sucking mouth parts. 3. (BRACHIO) Low projection between anterior muscle scars to which internal oblique muscles are attached. 4. (platy Cestoda) A rounded prominence on the anterior end of the scolex, often furnished with retractile spines or hooks sometimes referred to as an aclid organ. 5. (PLATY...

Gene splicing see splicing

Genetic assimilation The fixation of a genetic character being influenced by artificial environmental changes, not evident in the original phenotype. genetic balance Harmonious interaction of genes ensuring normal development of the organism genic balance. genetic code Genetic information that is encoded into DNA and transcribed to messenger RNA which forms peptides by genetic translation. genetic drift Genetic changes in isolated populations caused by random phenomena rather than by natural...

Sigmoid curve see logistic curve

Signa n.pl. sing. signum L. signum, sign (ARTHRO Insecta) In female Lepidoptera, spines or dentate or roughened patches on the inner wall of the corpus bursae, thought to function in holding or breaking up spermatophores. silicalemma n. L. silex, flint Gr. lemma, peel (PORIF) A unit membrane enclosing the axial filament of a siliceous spi-cule. siliceous, silicious a. L. silex, flint Of or pertaining to silica. silicoblasts n.pl. L. silex, flint Gr. blastos, bud (PORIF) A cell that secretes all...

Imagine see imago

L. imago, image (ARTHRO Insecta) 1. The adult or reproductive stage. 2. In termites, applied only to the adult primary reproductives. imaginai a. imagochrysalis n. L. imago, image Gr. chrysallis, chrysalis (ARTHRO Chelicerata) In the chigger mite life cycle, a quiescent stage between the nymph and adult. imbricate plates (ARTHRO Crustacea) In Cirripedia, the lower lateral, lower latus, and lower latera. imbrication n. L. imbricare, to cover with tiles An overlapping at the margins as...

Cincinnulus see retinaculum

Cinclides n.pl. sing. cinclis Gr. kinklis, latticed gate (CNID Anthozoa) In Actinaria, permanent or temporary perforations of the columnar body wall that permit the extrusion of water or acontia. cinct a. L. cinctum, girdle Belted, girdled or encircled. cinereous a. L. cinereus, ash colored Ash-gray, ashen, or having the color of wood ashes. cingulum n. L. cingulum, girdle 1. Any band or girdle-like structure. 2. (ANN) The clitellum. 3. (MOLL) The colored bands or spiral ornamentation on...