Capitellum see capitulum

capitular apodeme (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, an apodeme separating the cheliceral frame and the infracapitu-lum.

capitular saddle (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, that area of the cervix separating the two cheliceral grooves.

capituliform a. [L. caput, head; forma, shape] Having an enlarged terminal part, like a capitulum.

capituliform tooth (MOLL) The broad, flat-topped, outermost admedian on either side of the radula.

capitulum n.; pl. -la [L. caput, head] 1. A small knoblike protuberance. 2. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) The anterior body region of a mite or tick which bears the mouth parts; the gnathosoma. 3. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) a. In Cirripedia, a portion of the carapace that encloses the body, commonly protected by calcareous plates. b. In Ostracoda, an anterior prominence in the complex tooth and socket hingement. 4. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. The enlarged tip of an insect antenna or proboscis. b. In Diptera, the small tubercle at the tip of halteres. 5. (CNID: Anthozoa) In Actinaria, an upper, thin-walled region of the column. 6. (NEMATA) a. The head or manubrium of a spicule. b. A flange of the gubernaculum cuneus.

caprification n. [L. caprificus, wild fig tree] The method or process of pollination by Blastophaga psenes, a chalcid fig wasp, that breeds in wild capri figs and serves to pollinate Smyrna figs.

caprificator n. [L. caprificus, wild fig tree] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The chalcid fig wasp, Blastophaga psenes that performs the process of caprification.

capsula n.; pl. -lae [L. dim. capsa, box] A capsule.

capsular, capsulate a. [L. dim. capsa, box] In the form of, or enclosed within a capsule.

capsular flame cells Flame cells that open directly into a bladder at the end of a canal.

capsule n. [L. dim. capsa, box] A sac-like membrane resulting from macroscopic alien objects enclosing an organ, egg, foreign body, etc. see giant cell.

captaculum n.; pl. -ula [L. captare, to snatch at, catch] (MOLL: Scaphopoda) One of numerous slender retractile tentacles with sucker-like tips, arising from the dorsal surface of the head; used in gathering foraminifera and very small mollusks.

capuliform a. [L. capulus, holder; forma, shape] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Having the shape of a depressed cone with eccentric apex and near-apical part of the shell slightly coiled, as in Capulus .

caput n.; pl. capita [L. caput, head] 1. The head or knob-like protuberance. 2. The head with all its appendages.

capylus n. [LL. cappa, hood] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A hump on the dorsal aspect of the segments of many insect larvae.

caraboid, carabidoid a. [Gr. karabos, a kind of beetle] (ar-THRO: Insecta) Resembling Carabidae; a carabid beetle; the second instar larvae of Meloidae, the blister beetles.

carapace n. [Sp. carapacho, covering] 1. Any fused series of sclerites covering a portion of the body. 2. (ARTHRO: Cheli-cerata) a. In Acari, the more or less fused dorsal sclerites of the cephalothorax covering the idiosoma of mites and ticks. b. In Arachnida, the upper covering of the cephalothorax. 3. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) a. A cuticular, usually calcified, structure formed by the posterior and lateral extension of the dorsal sclerites of the head of many decapods and other crustaceans, often covering head and thorax. b. In bivalves, a fold of integument extending from the maxillary segment forming the shell. c. In some Cirripedia, the mantle usually with calcified plates. 4. (rotif) The rigid cuticle of many rotifers.

carapace angles (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Conchostraca, the intersection of the straight dorsal margin by the anterior and posterior ribs.

carapace carina (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The narrow ridge on the surface of a carapace.

carapace costae (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Fine to coarse closely spaced radial ridges, that do not cross the umbo; radial lirae.

carapace costellae (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Fine radial ridges, extending from the ventral margin to and across the umbo, generally numerous on any given valve, especially in Con-chostraca.

carapace groove (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Various types of furrows on the surface of a carapace.

carapace growth line (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The peripheral margin of successive membranes added to the shell during each molt.

carapace horn (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The anterodorsal termination of carapace valves in some archaeostracans; in others, may be indurated or produced into long processes.

carapace lirae (ARTHRO: Insecta) Linear concentric ridges parallel to and interspaced between the growth lines.

carapace region (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Differentiated portion of the surface of a carapace.

carapace spines (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Variously placed, sharp projections from the carapace.

carapace tooth (ARTHRO: Insecta) Various blunt or small sharp spinous projections on a carapace, often broader than a spine.

carbohydrates [L. carbo comb. form, carbon; Gr. hydor, water] Compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio of 1:2:1. see monosaccharide, disaccha-ride, polysaccharide.

carcinoid a. [Gr. karkinos, crab; eidos, like] Pertaining to or resembling crabs.

carcinology n. [Gr. karkinos, crab; logos, discourse] That branch of zoology that studies Crustacea.

cardate mastax (rotif) In the genus Lindia, a sucking type of mastax characterized by forked manubria with the sucking action produced by the unci.

cardia n. [Gr. kardia, heart] 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) An anterior cardiac chamber of the midgut of Diptera; the proventricu-lus of some authors. 2. (BRYO) Part of the digestive tract into which the esophagus opens, sometimes differentiated into gizzard and stomach. 3. (NEMATA) The esophago-in-testinal valve.

cardiac a. [Gr. kardia, heart] Pertaining to or near the heart.

cardiac notch or incision (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Indentation on the posterior margin of a carapace.

cardiac pyloric valve (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, a calcified triangular plate that may be flat or curved, generally covered with elongate setae pointing backwards, or covered by a thick corrugated layer of pigmented chitin; functioning as a guard to the pyloric opening.

cardiac region (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, the median part posterior to the cervical groove, between the urogas-tric and intestinal regions.

cardiac sinus (ARTHRO) The dorsal part of the embryonic hemocoel of certain arthropods, that corresponds to a circulatory system, a part of which becomes the lumen of the dorsal blood vessel.

cardiac sphincter (ARTHRO: Insecta) Circular muscles at the entrance to the midgut of certain insects; cardiac valve; stomodeal valve.

cardiac stomach 1. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, the anterior portion of the stomach. 2. (BRYO: Phylactolaemata) That part of the stomach between the cardiac valve and caecum. 3. (echinod: Asteroidea) The large, loosely folded adoral stomach of a sea star, that is capable of being everted when feeding.

cardiac tooth (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Decapoda, a tooth on the mid-line of a carapace just posterior to the cervical groove.

cardiac valve 1. A valve at the junction of the foregut and midgut of many invertebrates. 2. (NEMATA) see cardia.

cardiform a. [Gr. kardia, heart; L. forma, shape] Resembling the shape of a heart.

cardinal a. [L. cardo, hinge] 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Referring to the cardo. 2. (MOLL: Bivalvia) Applied to the central or principal teeth in the hinge of a shell.

cardinal area 1. (BRACHIO) The posterior sector of the articu late valve. 2. (MOLL: Bivalvia) A flat or curved surface between the beak and the hinge line.

cardinal axis (MOLL: Bivalvia) An imaginary line on which the shell valves are hinged.

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