Cincinnulus see retinaculum

cinclides n.pl.; sing. cinclis [Gr. kinklis, latticed gate] (CNID: Anthozoa) In Actinaria, permanent or temporary perforations of the columnar body wall that permit the extrusion of water or acontia.

cinct a. [L. cinctum, girdle] Belted, girdled or encircled.

cinereous a. [L. cinereus, ash colored] Ash-gray, ashen, or having the color of wood ashes.

cingulum n. [L. cingulum, girdle] 1. Any band or girdle-like structure. 2. (ANN) The clitellum. 3. (MOLL) The colored bands or spiral ornamentation on certain univalve shells. 4. (ROTIF) The outer ciliary band of the coronal disc. cingu-late a.

circadian a. [L. circum, about; dies, day] Pertaining to a metabolic or behavorial phenomena in living organisms at about twenty-four hour intervals; circadian rhythm; diurnal rhythm.

circa-equatorial About the equator; around or near the middle.

circinate a. [Gr. kerkos, circle] Ring-shaped; spirally rolled.

circlet n. [Gr. kerkos, circle] A small circle; a ring.

circomyarian n. [Gr. kerkos, circle; mys, muscle] A muscle cell in which contractile fibrils completely surround the sar-coplasm. see platymyarian, coelomyarian.

circular muscle layer 1. The outermost muscular layer. 2. (BRYO: Phylactolaemata) In the body, the outer of the two thin muscle layers, between the peritoneum and the epithelium. 3. (ECHI) In all, except for genus Ikeda . 4. (SIPUN) May be grouped into defined bands or fasicles or formed in sheets.

circular overlap The phenomena in which a chain of contiguous and intergrading populations of one species curves back until the terminal links overlap geographically and are then found to be reproductively isolated from each other, and as such, behave as if they belong to separate species; a rassenkreis.

circular plate (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Syrphidae larvae, a weakly sclerotized refractive area on the dorsal inner sector of the posterior spiracular plate; however, in saprophytic forms a sunken area at or just above the center of the posterior spiracular plate.

circulation n. [L. circulare, to make round] In higher invertebrate forms, movement of blood within definite channels in the body; in other forms, movement of blood in the body cavity fluid.

circulatory system The cardiovascular system; the heart and blood vessels. a. Closed system: the blood is confined to tubes throughout its entire course. b. Open system: the blood leaves the arteries and circulates through body spaces before reentering the heart.

circulus n.; pl. circuli [L. circulus, ring] 1. Any ring-like arrangement, i.e., the branching of small blood vessels. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In scale insects, a glandular structure that discharges its contents internally.

circumanal a. [L. circum, around; anus, anus] About or surrounding the anus.

circumapical band (ROTIF) The second division of the corona that encircles the margin of the head. see buccal field.

circumboreal a. [L. circum, around; Gr. boreas, north wind] Pertaining to the north, i.e., distribution around the boreal region.

circumcapitular furrow (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, the furrow around the base of the gnathosoma.

circumcolumellar a. [L. circum, around; columella, pillar] Surrounding a columella.

circumenteric ring (NEMATA) A commissural nerve ring that encircles the esophagus (pharynx).

circumesophageal, circumoesophageal a. [L. circum, around; Gr. oisophagos, gullet] Structures or organs encircling the esophagus.

circumesophageal commissure The major commissure of the nervous system of many invertebrates to which and from which ramify anteriorly and posteriorly directed nerves and nerve cords; sometimes called the nerve ring.

circumesophageal connectives The nerve strand connectives on each side of the esophagus connecting the su-peresophageal ganglia and subesophageal ganglia of arthropods, annelids and brachiopods; circumoesophageal connectives.

circumfenestrate a. [L. circum, around; fenestra, window] (NEMATA) In Heterodera spp., in which a vulval bridge across the vulval cone is not present, producing only a single opening. see ambifenestrate.

circumferential a. [L. circum, around; ferre, to bear] Of or pertaining to the circumference; encompassing; encircling.

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