glumes n.pl. [L. gluma, husk] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymen-optera, longitudinal ridges on the flagellar segments of many wasps.
glutinants n.pl. [L. gluten, glue] (CNID) A type of nematocyst; the holotrichous and atrichous isorhizas.
glutinose, glutinous a. [L. glutinosus, sticky] Having a slimy or sticky surface.
glycocalyx n. [Gr. glykys, sweet; kalyx, covering] 1. A filamentous layer containing carbohydrate, found on the outer surface of many cells. 2. (ACANTHO) Formerly known as epicuticle.
glycogen n. [Gr. glykys, sweet; genes, born] A branch-chained polysaccharide; a major stored food substance of most animals, fungi and bacteria.
glycogenesis n. [Gr. glykys, sweet; gennaein, to produce] Formation of glycogen from glucose.
glycogenolysis n. [Gr. glykys, sweet; genes, born; lyein, to break up] The breakdown of glycogen.
glycolysis n. [Gr. glykys, sweet; lyein, to break up] The enzymatic breakdown of glucose to lactic acid or pyruvic acid with the release of energy in the form of high energy phosphate bonds.
glycoprotein n. [Gr. glykys, sweet; proteion, primary] Gluco-protein whose hexosamine content is less than 4%.
glymma n.; pl. -ae (ARTHRO: Insecta) In ichneumonid Hymen-optera, one of a pair of lateral fovae between the base and spiracles of the petiolar segment; may be small and shallow or large and almost meeting in midline.
gnathal a. [Gr. gnathos, jaw] Pertaining to the jaws.
gnathal lobe 1. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The masticatory endite of the mandible; the masticatory process. 2. (ARTHRO: Diplo-poda) The third or most distal part of the mandible; bearing the teeth and grinding surfaces.
gnathal pouch (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. The concave surface below the oral plate; the oral chamber. b. In Hymenoptera, used as a receptacle for food particles and detritus in ants.
gnathal region/segments (ARTHRO: Insecta) The gnatho-cephalon.
gnathites n.pl. [Gr. gnathos, jaw] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The mouth parts; the buccal appendages.
gnathobase n. [Gr. gnathos, jaw; basis, base] 1. (ARTHRO) One of a pair of endites used to manipulate or move food in trilobites, and some crustaceans. 2. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In arachnids, the projection from the coxa of a leg or palp, used in crushing food. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) A lobe or projection of a basal segment of an appendage near the mouth, used in eating.
gnathocephalon n. [Gr. gnathos, jaw; kephale, head] (ARTHRO: Insecta) That part of the head formed by the gnathal segments and the procephalic lobes.
gnathochilarium n. [Gr. gnathos, jaw; dim. cheilarion, lip] (ARTHRO: Diplopoda) A plate-like mouth structure; thought to be the fused maxillae and labium.
gnathopod(ite) n. [Gr. gnathos, jaw; pous, foot] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Prehensile appendages. a. The maxilliped. b. In Amphipoda, the first and second pereopods, chelate or subchelate; the gnathopodite; subchela.
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