Prolymphocyte see prohemocyte

promentum n. [L. pro, before; mentum, chin] (ARTHRO: Diplopoda) A median sclerite in the gnathochilarium, anterior of the mentum or stipites.

promerites n.pl. [Gr. pro, before; meros, part] (ARTHRO: Diplopoda) In male Julida, the eighth pair of body limbs used in conjunction with the ninth pair of trunk legs (mesomer-ite) to draw out the female vulva.

promesonotal suture (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, the transverse seam separating the pronotum from the mesonotum of Formicidae.

prometaphase n. [Gr. pro, before; meta, between; phasis, appearance] In meiosis and mitosis the stage at which the chromosomes move to the equatorial plate.

prominence n. [L. prominens, projecting] A raised, produced or projecting area. prominent a.

promitochondrion n.; pl. -ria [Gr. pro, before; mitos, thread;

chondros, grain] The possible precursor of a mitochondrion.

promotion n. [L. pro, before; motio, move] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The movement of the coxa, resulting in protraction.

promyal passage (MOLL: Bivalvia) In oysters, the exhalant water passage found between the adductor muscle and mantle isthmus.

pronotal comb (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Siphonaptera, the row of strong spines on the posterior margin of the pronotum.

pronotum n. [Gr. pro, before; notos, back] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The dorsal sclerite of the prothorax.

pronucleus n. [L. pro, before; nucleus, kernal] The spermatozoa and ova nucleus after maturation, prepared for fusion to form a zygote nucleus.

pronymph n. [Gr. pro, before; nymphe, pupa] (ARTHRO: Insecta) An individual enclosed in an embryonic cuticle which is shed during eclosion and left in the egg shell, or cast after hatching; vermiform larva; primary larva.

pronymphal membrane Embryonic cuticle covering the pro-nymphs with simple (hemimetabolus) or sometimes complete (holometabolus) metamorphosis, which are shed by a process similar to molting before or shortly after hatching; embryonic cuticle; paraderm.

proorchic a. [Gr. pro, before; orchis, testicle] (NEMATA) An anteriorly directed testis.

proostracum n. [Gr. pro, before; ostrakon, shell] (MOLL: Cephalopoda) The anterior prolongation of the rostrum; a horny pen. see gladius.

propagate v. [L. propagare, to propagate] 1. To transmit a wave of excitation along a nerve fiber. 2. To continue or cause to multiply.

proparamere n. [Gr. pro, before; para, near; meros, part] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. In some Dermaptera, a lateral sclerite which may consist of anterior and posterior parts that support the parameres. 2. In Diptera (Cyclorrhapha), one of two parameral processes. see opisthoparamere.

proparea n. [Gr. pro, before; pareia, cheek] (BRACHIO:Inarticulata) One of a pair of roughly triangular areas of the posterior sector of the shell.

propedes n.pl. [L. pro, before; pes, foot] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The forelegs, or prolegs of larvae.

propeltidium n. [Gr. pro, before; dim. pelte, shield] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Arachnida, the covering of the prosoma, except for plates V and VI.

prophallus n.; pl. -li [Gr. pro, before; phallos, penis] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Odonata, the penis in the floor of fenestra between hamuli; sheath of penis.

prophases n.pl. [Gr. pro, before; phasis, appearance] The early stages of mitosis or meiosis.

prophragma n. [Gr. pro, before; phragma, fence] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The anterior dividing wall of cuticular material connecting the pro- and mesothorax.

prophylaxis n.; pl. -laxes [Gr. pro, before; phylaktikos, guard] Methods designed to preserve health and prevent the spread of disease.

proplegma n.; pl. -ae [Gr. pro, before; plegma, plaited] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A single fold of the proplegmatium.

proplegmatium n.; pl. -ia [Gr. pro, before; plegma, plaited] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In scarabaeoid larvae, one of two areas with a plicate surface inside, usually in front of a plegma-tium; submarginal striae.

propleural bristles (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, bristles situated on the propleuron; just above the coxae of the forelegs.

propleuron n.; pl. -pleura [Gr. pro, before; pleura, side] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The lateral portion of the prothorax.

propneustic a. [Gr. pro, before; pneustikos, of breathing] (AR-THRO: Insecta) Having only the anterior pair of spiracles open and functioning. see oligopneustic.

propodeal apophyses (ARTHRO: Insecta) In ichneumonid Hy-menoptera, the posterior transverse carina (apical carina) with promontories at its junction with the lateral longitudinal carinae.

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