Somatic chaetae see somatic setae

somatic crossing-over Reciprocal chromatin exchange between homologous chromosomes during somatic mitosis.

somatic hybrid Non-sexual or vegetative hybrid.

somatic layer The external layer of the mesoderm.

somatic musculature 1. Muscles of the body. 2. (nemata) Longitudinally oriented muscle cells, usually spindle-shaped, containing a noncontractile portion and a contractile portion that control body movement.

somatic mutation Mutation in any cell other than a germ cell or its precursor.

somatic setae 1. Any setae on the body. 2. (ANN) Setae of the somatic segments that function in locomotion.

somatoblast n. [Gr. soma, body; blastos, bud] A cell that gives rise to somatic cells.

somatocoel n. [Gr. soma, body; koilos, hollow] (ECHINOD) The posterior of the three regions of coelomic sacs of the embryonic coelom, anterior (axocoel), and middle (hydrocoel).

somatocyst n. [Gr. soma, body; kystis, bladder] (CNID: Hy-drozoa) In Siphonophora, the beginning of the stem gas-trovascular canal that may contain an oil droplet.

somatoderm n. [Gr. soma, body; derma, skin] (MESO) The outer rings of cells around the body; jacket cells.

somato-esophageal muscles Muscles common to the eso-phageal region.

somato-intestinal muscles Muscles found in the region of the intestine, extending from the body wall.

somatome n. [Gr. soma, body; tome, cutting] A somite.

somatoplasm n. [Gr. soma, body; plasma, formed or molded] The body-tissues.

somatopleure n. [Gr. soma, body; pleura, side] The somatic layer.

somatotheca n. [Gr. soma, body; theke, case] (ARTHRO: In-secta) Area of pupa covering the abdominal rings. see gasterotheca.

somite n. [Gr. soma, body] A division of the body; a body segment of a metamerically segmented animal; a soma-

tome.

sonication n. [L. sonus, sound] The disruption of cells by sound waves.

sonifaction n. [L. sonus, sound; facere, to make] The production of sound; sonorific.

sordid a. [L. sorditus, dirty] Of a dirty or muddy color; dull.

sorotrochous a. [Gr. soros, heap; trochos, wheel] (ROTIF) Bearing a compound wheel organ or trochal disc.

spadix n. [L. spadix, palm frond] 1. (CNID: Hydrozoa) A central core on which the sex cells ripen on the blastostyle. 2. (MOLL: Cephalopoda) In male Nautilus sp., tentacles that form a specialized reproductive structure.

spado n. [Gr. spadon, a eunuch] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In hymen-opteran bees and ants, a worker or neuter individual.

spanandry n. [Gr. spanios, rare; andros, male] Progressive decrease in number of males.

spanogamy n. [Gr. spanios, rare; gamos, wife] Progressive decrease in females.

spanogyny n. [Gr. spanios, rare; gyne, female] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The disappearance of mosquito colonies requiring blood meals when maintained on a plant food source.

sparganum n. [Gr. sparganon, swaddling band] (PLATY: Cestoda) A second stage larva of Pseudophyllidea, with an elongated shape and lack of cystic cavity; a plerocercoid.

spat n. [A.S. spaetan, to spit] (MOLL: Bivalvia) A microscopic larval stage.

spatfall n. [A.S. spaetan, to spit; A.S. feallan, fall] (MOLL: Bivalvia) The en masse settlement of larva.

spatha n. [Gr. spathe, blade] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenop-tera, a dorsal lobe of the aedeagus.

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