Stigmatal line see spiracular line

stigmatal spine (ARTHRO: Insecta) In larval Diptera, the ex-trusible structure (modified terminal spiracles) in the anal siphon.

stigmatic cord (ARTHRO: Insecta) In some larvae, a delicate cord running from the scar of a nonfunctional spiracle to an adjacent part of the tracheal system.

stigmatic scar (ARTHRO: Insecta) The mark on the surface made by the ecdysial tube after molting.

stigmatiferous a. [Gr. stigma, mark; L. ferre, to bear] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Bearing spiracles or stigmata.

stigmergy n. [Gr. stigma, mark; mergere, to dive] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In social insects, the directing of work by individual colony members based on work previously accomplished as opposed to direct signals from nestmates.

stimulus n.; pl. stimuli [L. stimulus, a goad] Any change of external or internal conditions resulting in a change in the activities of an organism.

sting apparatus (ARTHRO: Insecta) In female Hymenoptera, the modified ovipositor of aculeates and many terebrantes, usually containing the venom gland and one accessory gland, the Dufour gland; others may sometimes be present: the Koshevnikov or Koshewnikow gland, the Bordas' gland, the sting sheath gland, or anal gland.

sting autotomy (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, enlarged barbs on the sting apparatus that remain at the sting site; autothysis.

stinging button (CNID) A group of nematocysts on a jellyfish tentacle, especially the Portuguese man-of-war.

sting sheath (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, the cover of the sting formed by the lateral halves of the third valvulae.

sting sheath gland/sheath gland (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, a gland in the sting sheath valves of various bees, in the form of a high palisade gland epithelium beneath a strongly sclerotized strip on the outer sides of the sheaths; function unknown.

stipe n. [L. stipes, a stem] 1. A stem or stalk-like appendage. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Eucarida, a stemlike basal part of an appendage with sometimes squamate or other-shaped expopod, i.e., the second joint of the antenna-like appendage.

stipes n.; pl. stipites [L. stipes, a stem] 1. (ARTHRO: Chelicer-ata) The distal end of the embolus (copulatory organ) of spiders. 2. (ARTHRO: Diplopoda) The lateral lobes of the gnathochilarium. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. The second segment or division of a maxilla that bears endite lobes, the lacinea and galea on its inner apical angle and the telopo-dite (palpus) laterally; may be combined with basi-, disti-, etc. b. In Diptera, a rodlike structure located inside the head ventral to the tentorial arms. 4. (ARTHRO: Pauropoda) One of the three articles of the first maxilla, along with cardo and lacinia. 5. (ARTHRO: Symphyla) Two pairs of maxillae similar to those of insects, except lacking a joint separating the cardo and stipes.

stipiform a. [L. stipes, a stem; forma, shape] Resembling a stalk.

stipital a. [L. stipes, a stem] Pertaining to the stipe(s).

stipple n. [D. stippelen, to spot] Numerous circles or dots; shading effects produced by dots, circles or small marks.

Stobbe's gland (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Lepidoptera, paired multicellular aphrodisiac pheromone producing glands in the second abdominal segment of male noctuids.

stock n. [A.S. stocc, stem, race] (ANN: Polychaeta) The sexual individuals from which other individuals arise asexually.

stolon n. [L. stolo, a branch] 1. (ANN) Individuals that are budded or fragmented asexually off of other individuals. 2. (BRYO: Stenolaemata) In Stolonifera, a tubular kenozooid or extension of an autozooid from which autozooids are budded. 3. (CNID: Anthozoa) A stem-like structure from which polyps arise. see hydrocaulus.

stolonate a. [L. stolo, a branch] Having stolons; stoloniferous.

stoloniferan n. [L. stolo, a branch; ferre, to bear] (BRYO: Stenolaemata) An autozooid budded from a single kenozo-

oid.

stoma n.; pl. stomata [Gr. stoma, mouth] 1. Any of various small, simple mouth openings of invertebrates. 2. (NEMATA) The mouth or buccal cavity, from the oral opening and usually includes the anterior end of the esophagus (=pharynx).

stomach n. [Gr. stoma, mouth] The digestive cavity of invertebrates.

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